FACT: There are two sides to every document. An obvious statement, you say. I agree. So, why am I writing about this? Because I was surprised recently when I turned over a document and read what was written on the back of the page. Here’s the story.
In my last blog post, I mentioned a box of family pictures and documents sent to me by a cousin. Among the documents is a yellowed, fragile piece of paper with a list of names and dates. An uneven edge and incomplete dates suggest that the paper was torn. The paper measures 10 inches long x 4 inches wide. A scanned copy, received via email about two months ago, did not reveal the color or condition of the page. First guess? From a family Bible, although the page did not include the usual headings of “Births” and “Deaths”.
Jimmey Jones and Patience, list of names & dates. Privately held by Susan Posten Ellerbee [address for private use,] Yukon, Oklahoma.
The list appears to be a list of children born to Jimmey Jones and Patience Heamons/ Havens (or variation). These characteristics identify the document as a primary or original source. The origin of the information is unknown although possibly based on firsthand knowledge of the events. 
(For a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary sources, read “Evaluating sources & information”
The person of interest is “Nancy born September the 22: 1823” (line 9). Nancy A. Jones, wife of Esbon Traver, is one of my maternal great- great grandmothers. Nancy’s maiden name is carved on their gravestone.  I admit that I presumed the information to be true and haven’t actively done the research to confirm Nancy’s maiden name.
This list of names introduced me for the first time to Nancy’s parents, Jimmey (James) Jones and Patience Heamons/ Havens. Confirming names and dates on the list is the subject of a future post. Today, I focus on the document itself.
I turned the page over, expecting to find it blank. Imagine my surprise, and delight, when I discovered additional information there. A printed form with hand written entries, a date, and tape marks. Get out the white gloves!
Reverse side of Jimmey Jones and Patience list:
The list of names and dates wasn’t a page torn from a family Bible! It was written on the back of a form. Tape marks suggest that someone thought one side was more important than the other. As a genealogist, both sides of the page are equally important. Where is the rest of the page? What information is on that paper?
Who is George Barker, named as substitute for 37 year-old Esbon Traver? Many men “avoided military service by simply taking advantage of that section of the Enrollment Act of 1863 allowing draftees to pay $300 to a substitute who served for them.”  I am still looking for his service record and will report in a later post.
Compare the handwriting on both sides of the documents. I’m not a handwriting expert but the handwriting appears to be that of two different people. Ink appears consistent with time period of 1860s. I need a hero- an historical document expert!
Review of historical documents is one aspect of genealogy. Asking questions – who, what, when, where, why- reveal information about the document and its provenance. The National Archives suggests these steps to analyze such documents: 
- Meet the document.
- Observe its parts.
- Try to make sense of it.
- Use it as historical evidence.
As you meet a document, inspect it carefully. Dates and signatures give clues about the document’s authenticity. Is there a seal on the document? Look for signs of tampering. Read the words carefully. Is there a hidden meaning? Consult books on historical and/or genealogical research for more information about document analysis.
Questions and preliminary answers:
- Who wrote the document? List of names could have been written by Esbon Traver, his wife, Nancy Jones, or one of their children. A different person probably wrote the entry on the other side.
- What information is contained in the document? One side: A list of names and dates beginning with Jimmey Jones and Patience Heamons/ Havens and their presumed children. Other side: Entry for a substitute for Esbon Traver, dated 1864.
- When was the document written? List of names: After 1866, since that is last date on the document. Substitute form: Probably 1864.
- Where was the document written? Unknown, possibly Ulster or Greene county, New York. Sources: census records for Esbon Traver and his wife, Nancy.
- Why was the document written? List of names: to preserve family history? Consider possibility that back of substitute document was an available piece of paper and, therefore, used for the purpose of recording family names and dates.
- How was the document produced? Printed form on one side. Handwritten entries on the form. Handwritten name and date list on the other side of the form.
Next steps: Consult with historical document expert and/or handwriting expert. Continue search for records about Jimmey, Patience, and their children. Identify Civil War service record for George Barker.
Online resources: I found this Document Analysis Worksheet on the National Archives Website.
I was really surprised to find the ‘substitute’ form and entries on the back side of the name list. I don’t know why I expected a blank page. Now, I have more information about Esbon Traver. I plan to follow up on the substitute information. I remembered bits and pieces about evaluating historical documents from various research courses. The date on the form helps to date the paper itself and gives another clue about the date of the entries on both sides of the paper. I don’t have the exact provenance of the paper – who gave it to my uncle? Since he and my maternal grandfather are both named Esbon, presumably after Esbon Traver, I wonder if the paper was given to my grandfather by one of his parents and then to my uncle. I need to buy a basic ‘genealogy how-to’ book for reference purposes. Maybe one about historical research methods?
What I learned: Always look at both sides of a document! Expanded my knowledge base about the dating of documents. Found a worksheet for document analysis.
What helped: seeing and handling the original document. Having an archival quality plastic sleeve for the document.
What didn’t help: knowing the document was old but no idea how old (paper from 1864). I would have gotten my white gloves out sooner!
Future plans: Consult historical document expert.
 Family papers and photographs from estate of Esbon Herman Tucker (1917 – 2003). Privately held by Susan Posten Ellerbee [address for private use,] Yukon, Oklahoma. Items sent to Ms. Ellerbee by Mr. Tucker’s daughter, April 2018. Mr. Tucker is brother of Ms. Ellerbee’s mother.
 Elizabeth Shown Mills. Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace, 3rd ed. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2015), 24-25.
 Find A Grave, database and images (http://www.findagrave.com : viewed 27 April 2018), memorial page for Nancy H. Jones Traver, Find A Grave Memorial # 92468922, citing Locust Cemetery (Greenville, Greene county, New York), memorial created by Lorna Puleo, photograph by Lorna Puleo.
 Michael T. Meier. “Civil War Draft Records: Exemptions and Enrollments”. Prologue, Winter 1994, Vol. 26, No. 4, Genealogy Notes. (https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1994/winter/civil-war-draft-records.html : accessed 8 May 2018), paragraph 4.
National Archives, “Teaching with Documents: Document Analysis,” National Archives (https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons : accessed 8 May 2018). Includes worksheets and other materials related to the analysis of documents and other primary sources.
 History Detectives, “Document This,” PBS, History Detectives (http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/educators/technique-guide/document-this/ : accessed 8 May 2018).