Perils of ‘Point and click’ genealogy

Are you my grandmother’s parents?

Hint found, online family tree database: George H. Maurer, age 61, born in New York and wife, Anna, age 55, born in New York living in Manhattan, New York, 1920.[1]  Must be my great-grandparents!  My momma told me that her grandparents were Herman and Anna Maurer and that they lived in New York City. Minor detail that husband recorded as “George H.”  His middle name could be Herman! Given name and name person is known within family aren’t always the same!  Another minor detail: George’s parents are recorded as born in New York. According to mom, Herman’s parents were German immigrants to the United States.

George_Anna_branch or tree

This is one example of my experience with genealogy point and click syndrome, a.k.a, ‘shaky leaf syndrome’.  A shaky leaf appears on the online family tree. I read the record in a cursory manner then, ‘point and click’ to attach the record to a person. Or, I saw the record on another person’s online tree. The record fits some information about the person or family, so it must be OK.

The problem?  This George H. and Anna Maurer are not my direct ancestors! How did I find out? Only after I carefully reviewed paper and digital records. The review, prompted by Genealogy Do-Over, presented several clues. Specifically, Herman’s parents were born in Germany. Second, Anna Klee Maurer, died in 1918! Where did I go wrong? How can I prevent this from happening? “It’s simple,” you say. “Question everything!”

Read more about Ancestry hints on Amy Johnson Crow’s  blog :  “The truth about Ancestry’s Hints”. Posted 4 January 2017. 

Not really so simple. Novice genealogists, in particular, can easily catch this syndrome. If not careful, even experienced genealogists occasionally follow a wrong lead based on one or two facts.  Names, dates, locations are close and look right. I am blessed that Great-Aunt Viola wrote a brief family genealogy.[2] I have often referred to that document in the past several months and continue to use it as a base.  What if I didn’t have that document?  How would I know that Herman and Anna, living in Manhattan in 1920, are not my ancestors? The single census record doesn’t divulge that information.

1920 Census_George_Anna_Maurer

!920 U.S. Census, New York City, New York. George H. Maurer and wife, Anna Maurer.

So, it’s back to the basics. My solution:  Search for a census record closest to the year and location of another known event that you can confirm.  The record may or may not include Herman or Anna. Analyze every piece of information on the record.  Repeat with other records, moving forward or backward in time. During the process, you may circle back to where you started.  But, you could also end at a different place. This seems almost too logical but I believe that we sometimes bypass this guideline in the quest for an older ancestor or event.

Here’s my case study. What if  I had few documents and only this basic information. For the moment, forget previous posts about this family.

  • Mother, Eunice Tucker, born 1919 in Huntington, Suffolk county, New York to Esbon J. Tucker and Charlotte Maurer.
  • Mom lived in Huntington until her marriage to Dad.
  • Grandmother (Mom’s mother), a.k.a. Gram, k.a. Lottie, was born in New York City, possibly Brooklyn, to Herman and Anna (Klee) Maurer.
  • Viola, a.k.a. Aunt Olie, Gram’s sister, lived with Esbon and Lottie.
  • Grandfather (Mom’s father), a.k.a. Pop, born in Greenville, New York to William F. Tucker and Bertha Traver. I remember Pop saying that he was from upstate New York.
  • We often visited Gram and Pop in Huntington.
UpstateFun fact:   What is the definition of ‘upstate New York’?    For some, upstate is all areas of New York except New York City and Long Island. Others consider west of the Hudson River as ‘upstate’ or name specific counties as being ‘downstate’.  Join the conversation on twitter:  https://twitter.com/hashtag/whereisupstate

The 1920 census for Huntington, Suffolk county, New York, seems like the logical choice. Search criteria:  Esbon Tucker, Lottie Tucker,  Eunice Tucker (mom).  An online database quickly displays the record  IF the handwriting is clear and  IF the names are transcribed accurately.  If not,  inspect the record images page by page until you find an entry that looks like it ‘could be’ the right person or family.  I missed my mother and her parents the first time that I looked.

1920 U.S. Census_Herman Maurer_Huntington

1920 U.S. Census, Huntington, Suffolk county, New York. Page 7A.

Transcription for dwelling # 130, family 139, 1st Ave, Huntington, New York, reads: [3]

  • Herman Merured, head, age 60, head, M, W, wd [widower], b. New Jersey, father b. Germany, mother b. Germany
  • Viola Merured , daughter, age 13, f, w,  single, b. NY, father b. New Jersey, mother b. New York
  • Esmond  Tucker, son-in-law, age 28, married, b. NY, mother b. New York, father b. New York.
  • Charlotte Tucker, daughter, age 28, daughter, married, b. New York
  • Esmond Tucker, grandson,age  2 6/12, single, b. New York
  • Eugenies  Tucker, age 8/12, single, b. New York

Next, evaluate each data point separately.  Start with a person whose information is clearer and/or closest to a known fact. For me, the names of Herman, Viola and Charlotte stood out.

  1. Herman Merured, head of household, age 60, ‘wd’ which means ‘widow’ or ‘widower’. “Merured” could be “Maurer”. His wife died before 1920.
  2. Viola Merured – daughter. Viola, Gram’s sister, lived with Gram and Pop.
  3. Charlotte Tucker, daughter. One name transcribed correctly!

Judge the other entries:

  1. Esmond Tucker – son-in-law. First name close to Pop’s given name of Esbon. Surname transcribed correctly! Inferred husband of Charlotte.
  2. Esmond Tucker – mom’s older brother, Esbon; spelling is close. Age of 2 6/12 suggests date of birth about July 1917. (Note: Esbon’s date of birth is 30 April 1918 on his birth certificate).
  3. Eugenies Tucker – close to Mom’s given name of Eunice Tucker. Age 8/12. Inconsistent with Mom’s birthdate of 31 August 1919 and only 5 months old in January 1920. Possible transcription error or census taker error?

Is this record close to known information? Yes, but only because I know about mom’s family. Another researcher, less familiar with our family, might say ‘no’ or ‘maybe’. This census record suggests that Herman’s wife, Anna, died before 1920.  Tying the pieces together, I  now state that Herman and Anna Maurer, living in Manhattan in 1920, are certainly not my ancestors. Next question: When did Anna die?

Be sure to document search attempts and findings on a research log.  State why information is consistent or inconsistent with other information. For questionable information,  I use a red pen and question marks on handwritten notes and highlights or colors on digital notes.  Any source may have multiple types of information.  You will save time and effort later.  This will save time and effort later.

TO-DO LIST:  Search for Herman and Anna in previous census, such as 1915 New York State Census. If Herman again listed as ‘wd’,  locate 1910 U.S. Federal Census. Continue searching earlier census records as needed to narrow range of possible death years for Anna.

Found:  1915 New York State Census record for Herman and Anna.

Fortunately, the census taker for this part of the 1915 New York State Census wrote more clearly. This facilitated ready identification and display of the transcription for this family:   [4]

1915_NY State Census_Herman_Anna_crop1.jpg

1915 New York State Census, Huntington, Suffolk County, New York, Herman Maurer, part of page 47.

1915 census Herman final

Herman, Anna and their children were in Huntington in June 1915. Since Herman was listed as ‘wd’ (widower) on 1920 census  Anna’s death date narrows to between June 1915 and January 1920.

Another search of my paper files yielded an almost forgotten item from an online message board, an obituary for Anna Maurer.[5]  I verified the message board entry by locating a transcription of the obituary from another source.[6]  The obituary reads:

“Brooklyn Standard Union, July 28, 1918. Anna Maurer. Funeral services for Anna Maurer, who died on Thursday at her home in Huntington, where she had been a resident for fifteen years, will be held tomorrow at 10 A.M. at the funeral chapel of Mrs. George Ehlenberger, 295 Wyckoff Avenue, near Linden Street. Mrs. Maurer was born in Brooklyn fifty-four years ago and is survived by her husband, Herman Jr, and two daughters, Viola and Mrs. Mattoe Pucker. Interment at Evergreen Cemetery.”

“Mrs Mattoe Pucker”? I don’t have a copy of the original printed obituary to see if this is a print or transcription error. Names of Herman and Viola are consistent with other records.

Finally, I discovered a death record for Anna Maurer in Klee_Anna_mMaurer_death index_1918_crop21918, Huntington:  [7]

The New York Department of Health reports an 8-9 month wait to obtain a death certificate for genealogical use.

FYI: Yes, I marked George H. and Anna Maurer census record as ‘negative evidence’ and ‘not my ancestors’.

Addendum: Anna Maurer from 1920 census found?

As I checked databases and sources for this post, I found two records for another Anna Maurer,  who could be the same Anna Maurer who lived in Manhattan in 1920.  Hopefully, someone reading this post will recognize her as their ancestor.

1940 Census[8]: Anna Maurer, age 76.  Estimated birth year 1864.  Female, White, birthplace New York. Inmate, Wards Island, Manhattan State Hospital, New York City, New York.

New York, Extracted Death Index[9]:  Anna Maurer, age 77, birth year abt 1864, death date: 1 March 1941; death place: Manhattan, New York, USA.

Are the two Maurer families related?  Maybe.

reflection-swirl-green-color-hi

REFLECTION:

I recognize my error now and am being more cautious. I document searches and results on more regular basis. I realize how easy it is to confuse persons with similar names, birth years, birth dates, and residences. I could have easily marked Anna Maurer, who died in 1941, as my great-grandmother.  My mother died in 2007 so I cannot ask her. Mom’s brothers and sister are also dead. A cousin knows some of the family history.  Get the information from your oldest relatives as soon as you can!

When I began collecting and analyzing records, I didn’t follow any logical process outlined here. I have become more systematic in my approach. I document more often and more thoroughly.

I sometimes get discouraged. I keep finding gaps and missed information. I remind myself about the purpose of the Genealogy Do-Over:  to improve genealogy research skills, including data management. As a result, I view items and information differently. I am more skeptical and keep better notes. I ‘point and click’ less often and take notes/ make comments more often.

What I learned:  Carefully check and re-check information. In the 1915 census, my grand-uncle, William Charles Maurer,  listed his occupation as registered nurse. I have been a registered nurse for 45 years. Even now, only about 10% of nurses are male. There is a story to be discovered and told!

What helped:  Documentation of previous searches and records found. Organization of paper and digital files begun last year.

What didn’t help: Incomplete transcription (by me) of data in records. I didn’t actively search for and find the death index record for Anna Maurer until this month.

TO- DO:  Order Anna Klee Maurer’s death certificate – one of 6 on my list!  Transcribe all data found in a record, even if the information isn’t relevant to the current question. Review Genealogy Do-Over Months 1 and 2.  Take a breath!

Sources:

[1] 1920 U.S. Census, New York, New York, population schedule, Manhattan Assembly District 13, enumeration district (E.D. 965), page 21B (penned), dwelling 2469, family 490, entry for George H. Maurer, 55; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed, downloaded 26 Jan 2014); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Microfilm publication T625, Roll 1209.

[2] Viola Blanche Maurer Tucker, “Maurer-Tucker Family History,” [Page]; MS, 1800s to 1980s, Huntington, Suffolk County, New York; privately held by great-niece, Susan Mercedes Posten Ellerbee, [address for private use], Yukon, Oklahoma, 2017.  Carbon copy of original document created ca. 1975-1980 sent to Ms. Ellerbee by her great-aunt.

[3] 1920 U.S. Census, Suffolk county, New York, population schedule, Huntington, enumeration district (ED) 113, p. 7A (penned), dwelling 136, family 139, Eugenies [Eunice] Tucker; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed, downloaded, printed 14 March 2017); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Microfilm publication T625, Roll 1269. Census date:  22nd & 29th January 1920.

[4] 1915 New York State Census, Suffolk county, New York, population schedule, Huntington, , pg. 47, Hermon Maurer age 55; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded 10 January 2017); citing New York State Archives, Albany, New York..

[5] Cyber Angel, “Anna b Bklyn d Huntington NY 1918 hus Herman,” Maurer Family Genealogy Forum, message board listing, posted 8 February 2002; (http://genforum.genealogy,com/cgi-bi/pageload.cgi?Herman, Maurer: :maurer:::836.html  : accessed 9 June 2007).   “Anna Maurer”, obituary, Brooklyn Genealogy Information Page, Newspapers, Brooklyn (Daily) Standard Union, 1918 Deaths. . l July 11th-30th (http://bklyn-genealogy-info.stevemorse.org/Newspaper/BSU/1918.2b.html  :  accessed 18 July 2018).

[6] “Anna Maurer”, obituary, Brooklyn Genealogy Information Page, Newspapers, Brooklyn (Daily) Standard Union, 1918 Deaths. .  July 11th-30th (http://bklyn-genealogy-info.stevemorse.org/Newspaper/BSU/1918.2b.html  :  accessed 18 July 2018).

[7] “New York State Death Index, 1880-1956,” database with images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com :  accessed & downloaded 23 July 2018); entry for Anna Maurer, 1918, 26 Jul, Huntington, pg. 1003; citing “NY State Death Index,” New York Department of Health, Albany, N.Y.’ Certificate number: 45345.

[8] 1940 U.S. Census, New York, New York, population schedule, Manhattan, enumeration district 1649, sheet 30B, Ward’s Island, Anna Maurer; imaged at Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 26 July 2018); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C., microfilm publication T0627-02663.

[9] “New York, New York, Extracted Death Index, 1862-1948,” database, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 26 July 2018); entry for Anna Maurer, death 1 March 1941, certificate #5345; citing “Index to New York City Deaths 1862-1948,” Indices prepared by the Italian Genealogical Group and the German Genealogy Group, and used with permission of the New York City Department of Records/Municipal Archives.

© Susan Posten Ellerbee and “Posting Family Roots” blog, 2018.  

Finding (or not)  a Revolutionary War Patriot ancestor. Part 2.  The case of Sarah Ostrander’s father, Thomas

clipart-of-revolutionary-war-soldiers.med“You’re descended from a Revolutionary War soldier.”  Many can prove a direct line back to such a person. For others, like myself, the family story stalls out. In the previous post, Part 1: Oral traditions and the case of Jacob Postens, I described our family’s oral history of direct lineage to Jacob Postens, a Revolutionary War soldier. Evidence does not support that claim. In the current post, I relate my discovery of Thomas Ostrander, my great-great- great grandfather. In this second of the two-part series, I recall some information seen in previous posts. In both stories, I describe sources beyond the census records.

Family Traditions:

To review, I received a typewritten genealogy from a cousin in the early 1990s. Ruby Posten Gardiner, my grandfather’s niece, gave the information to a cousin who forwarded it to me.  [1]

typed Posten lineage

Copy of typewritten genealogy from Cousin Ruby

I traced Dad’s family from John R. Posten (Dad’s father) to Thomas Postens. That’s where the paper trail stopped. Now what? To become a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution (D.A.R.), I have to prove a direct ancestral line from me to a Revolutionary War soldier or someone who supported the American cause. A D.A.R. member suggested that I look at the wives of my known male ancestors.

Female ancestors in Dad’s family

During the next three months, I searched the women’s ancestors and crossed names off. Minimal or no records beyond the early 1800s was a common reason.  The D.A.R. database includes multiple patriots with the Shotwell surname but none of the information fit for my line.  July 2018_part2_pedigree_cross off001 I then turned to Jennie Richards Posten, Dad’s mother.

Sarah Ostrander Richards

Jennie’s parents were Ostrander Richards and Amelia Magdellene LaCoe. [2] Amelia’s grandfather, Anthony Desire LaCoe (Antoine Desirée Lecoq), immigrated to the United States in 1792 from France.  [3] That left only the parents of Ostrander Richards. Ostrander’s death certificate revealed his parents as Nathaniel Richards and Sarah Ostrander. [4] A county history, published in 1912,[5] revealed more:

“Mr. [Nathaniel] Richards second wife was Miss Sarah Ostrander, born June 20, 1801 and died March 27, 1836. She had one son, Ostrander, born March 20, 1836.” (p. 86)

Key items include:

  1. Sarah’s title of “Miss” suggests this is her first marriage.
  2. Sarah’s date of birth (June 20, 1801).
  3. Sarah’s date of death (March 27, 1836), approximately one week after giving birth, suggests that she died from complications associated with childbirth.

Ostrander’s death certificate records his date of birth as February 28, 1836.  Reasons for the discrepancy between the county history and his death certificate are unknown.

Nathaniel Richards’ ancestors remained elusive. A descendant of Nathaniel’s brother had suggested that Nathaniel and Peter’s parents were Nathaniel Richards and Sarah Van Sickle. [6]  Since then, a thin thread connects the senior Nathaniel Richards and his father, Abram Richards, to the American Revolution. Another item added to my “To-Do” list!

What about Sarah Ostrander? Many hours of non-productive research followed this clue. I kept a journal of this journey from its beginning in early 2010. One entry summarized a break in the case: [7]

I found a Sarah Ostrander in one family tree with parents’ names listed as Thomas Ostrander and Elizabeth Smith. The creator of that tree told me about the ‘Ostrander big book’. [8] She didn’t have any information about Sarah’s marriage or children but did have Sarah’s birth date, which corresponded to the birth date given in the Newton history. Have I found Sarah’s parents? “

Thomas Ostrander became the focus for the next phase. I posted more queries and continued to search. Since Thomas’ birth date was listed as 1745, he could be my Revolutionary War ancestor.  Continuation of my journal entry:

“The Ancestry.com website opened Revolutionary War records during the Week of July 4, 2010. Thomas Ostrander had a pension file![9]  Thomas was a lieutenant in a New York regiment. His wife and children are listed, including a daughter, Sarah, born June 20, 1801 (the same birth date listed for Sarah Ostrander Richards, my ancestor, in the Newton and Ransom history and from the Ostrander big book).”

Thomas Ostrander Rev War File title card

Have you identified any problems?  Thomas was born in New York, served in the New York militia, and died in New York. How, then, did Sarah meet and marry Nathaniel Richards, known to be living in Pennsylvania in the 1830s? Back to the databases and books!

I looked for more information about the Ostrander family. A compilation of articles from the Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, originally published in 1938, showed a possible link between the Ostrander family of New York and the Newkirk family of Pennsylvania: [10]

Page 27: “Children of Jacobus and Gilles (Newkirk) Swartout: iii. Jannetjen Swartout, bapt. October 11 1719; married Maes (Moses) Ostrander. Issue, born at Fishkill [Dutchess county, New York]: . . . Thomas Ostrander, born April 26, 1745.”

I now have consistent information between 3 documents- the Newkirk genealogy, Revolutionary War Pension file for Thomas Ostrander, and the Ostrander genealogy book. But, the question remains: Did Thomas Ostrander ever live in Pennsylvania?

Census records in 1880, 1900 and 1910 asked for mother’s place of birth. Ostrander Richards listed his mother’s place of birth as “Pennsylvania” on all three. [11]  [12] [13]  Conversely, Ostrander’s death certificate shows his mother’s birth place as “N.Y.” [New York].  Where was Sarah Ostrander Richards born?

I posed alternative explanations:

  1. Thomas Ostrander moved his family to Pennsylvania at some point, then moved back to New York.
  2. Sarah Ostrander remained in Pennsylvania when her parents moved back to New York.

Based on the possible Newkirk family link to Pennsylvania , I searched for related families in Luzerne and neighboring counties in Pennsylvania in 1800, 1810, and 1820.  I tried surnames of Newkirk, Smith, and Swartout as well as Ostrander. Although these census records only name heads of household, the gender and approximate ages of household members are recorded. There he was  – Thomas Ostrander, 1810, Tunkhannock, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania! [14] Dad’s family lived in or near Tunkhannock during most of his childhood.  From the Revolutionary War Pension application, I plugged in names and dates of birth for Thomas, Elizabeth and their children:

1810 Census Thomas Ostrander_orig doc

1810 U.S. Federal Census, Tunkhannock, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania

1810 Census_Thomas_Ostrander_transcription

Transcription of entry for Thomas Ostrander, 1810 U.S. Census, Tunkhannock, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania; names, estimated DOB and ages of family members based on Revolutionary War Pension Application file information

At last, I had stronger evidence to support the claim that Thomas Ostrander was father of Sarah Ostrander Richards! Some evidence is secondary and indirect. To summarize:

  1. Thomas Ostrander and family lived in Tunkhannock, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania in 1810. Reported ages match information recorded in Revolutionary War Pension file.
  2. Tunkhannock and Newton (home of Nathaniel Richards, husband of Sarah Ostrander) are about 17 miles apart.
  3. Sarah Ostrander married for the first time in her early 30s. Women usually married in their late teens or early 20s during that era. Reasons for later marriage were often related to care of family members.
  4. Thomas Ostrander died in 1816 in New York. He moved back to New York after 1810, leaving Sarah (and possibly her sister, Jane) in Pennsylvania. Note: Finding Jane is another story!
  5. Two documents (1912 county history and Thomas Ostrander’s Revolutionary War Pension File) record Sarah Ostrander with a birth date of June 20, 1801.

I submitted my application to join the Daughters of the American Revolution in January, 2011.  I included these bits and pieces of information plus a summary piecing them together. They approved my application and I am now officially recognized as a Daughter of the American Revolution!

reflection-swirl-green-color-hi

Reflection:

In this post, I relived my year-long journey to prove that I am a descendant of a soldier who fought in the American Revolution. The  journey took turns that I never expected. My initial feelings of frustration and discouragement cannot be under-stated! I almost quit the search. Frequent words of encouragement from a D.A.R. member helped me meet my goal. I am now working with a cousin to prove lineage from another Revolutionary War solider on my mother’s side. I remain hopeful that I will someday find Thomas Postens’ parents.  I wrote a more detailed record of this search in 2011; the manuscript remains unpublished.  I used excerpts from that manuscript in this blog post. Again, I used skills learned through Genealogy Do-Over as I revised this post.

What I learned:  Keep looking. Indirect and secondary information helps complete the puzzle. Take breaks as needed. An online family tree with minimal or no sources can still provide clues.

What helped: Access to multiple online and hard copy resources. Encouragement from D.A.R. member.  Journal of my activities, searches and results. I kept photocopies or scans of everything! Skills learned in Genealogy Do-Over lessons.

What didn’t help:  No research logs to compile information. Scattered notes. Incomplete citation of sources.

To-do:  Continue search for parents of Thomas Postens. Use research logs more consistently. Seek opportunities to publish my original manuscript.

SOURCES:

[1] Typewritten genealogy, Posten family tradition regarding lineage of John Posten to Jacob Posten (b 1755) as reported by Ruby Gardiner, granddaughter of Daniel Posten & Phoebe Fulkerson to Vera Posten Brooks, ca. 1989; privately held by Ellerbee, [address for private use,] Yukon, Oklahoma. Copy sent by Ms. Brooks to Ms. Ellerbee about 1990.

[2] Jennie Richards Posten, death certificate no. 062881-64 (25 June 1964), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Health, Vital Statistics, New Castle, Pennsylvania.

[3] Susan A. LaCoe, Lenay LaCoe Blackwell, and Velma Sue Miller, compilers/ updaters, Commemorative Record of LaCoe Family: Containing Biographical Sketches and Genealogy. Illustrated. 1750-2010, Martha L. LaCoe, compiler of first edition, edition 2010 (Pennsylvania: Privately published, 2010), pages 1, 34.

[4] Ostrande[r] Richards, death certificate no. 7033-1919 (10 January 1919), Commonwealth of Pennsylania, Department of Health, Vital Statistics, New Castle, Pennsylvania.

[5]  J. B. Stephens, Compiler, History and Directory of Newton and Ransom Townships, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania (Montrose, Pennsylvania: J.B. Stephens, 1912), 86; digital images, Pennsylvania State University Libraries Digital Library Collections, (http://collection1.libraries.psu.edu/cdm4 :  accessed & printed,  8 June 2010; entry for Nathaniel and Peter Richards, written by P.K. Richards, West Pittston,Pa. Peter K. Richards was son of Peter Richards and nephew of Nathaniel Richards. Page 85: “They immigrated to eastern Pennsylvania, which was at that time was called ‘going west,’ making the trip in large covered wagons. Nathaniel came in the Spring of 1829, and Peter in the Spring of 1832.”  P.K. Richards (author of the entry), born in 1832, did not witness the events but heard the stories from his father, Peter Richards, who died in 1850. Nathaniel Richards died in 1852. Both Peter and Nathaniel were born in Sussex County, New Jersey.

[6] Jim Richards,  “Re: Nathaniel Richards b. 1760 Ulster Co. N.Y.”, GenWeb, Richards Family Genealogy Forum,  25 July 2000 (http://genforum.genealogy.com  : accessed 18 July 2010).

[7] Susan (Posten) Ellerbee ,”Journal”, (MS, Yukon, Oklahoma, 2010-2011), entry for July 28, 2010; unnumbered pages; privately held by Susan Posten Ellerbee, [address for private use,], Yukon, Oklahoma, 2018. Handwritten entries in school-type notebook about her search for Revolutionary War ancestor as she prepared application to join Daughters of the American Revolution.

[8] Emmett Ostrander & Vinton P. Ostrander; Corliss Ostrander, ed. Ostrander: A Genealogical Record 1660-1995 (Marceline, Missouri: Walsworth Publishing Company, 1999).

[9] “Revolutionary War Pension & Bounty Land Warrant Application Files,” database with images, Fold3  (http://www.fold3.com :  accessed and downloaded 1 July 2010); Elizabeth Ostrander, widow; citing Revolutionary War Pension & Bounty Land Warrant Application Files, (Washington, D.C. : National Archives and Records Administration), microfilm publication M804.

[10] Adamson Bentley Newkirk, “The van Nieuwkirk, Nieukirk, Newkirk  Family,” Publications of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, special number (March 1934), 27; digital image reprint, Genealogies of Pennsylvania Families (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1982), pp. 387-502.  Accessed from Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.com   : accessed 1 July 2010). Digital copy of the original article also available from Hathi Trust (https://babel.hathitrust.org)

[11] 1880 census, Ostrander Richards. 1880 U.S. Census, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Ransom, enumeration district (ED) 43, p. 347A (stamped), p. 13 (penned), dwelling 110, family 110, Ostrander Richards 44; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com   : accessed, printed, downloaded 5 May 2010); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. , microfilm publication T9_ 1138.

[12] 1900 census, Ostrander Richards. 1900 U.S. Census, Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Ransom Twp, enumeration district (ED) 40, p. 225 A (stamped), dwelling 133, family 177, Richards Ostrand [Ostrander], head; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, viewed, downloaded 31 May 2017); citing National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Roll: T623_1419.

[13] 1910 census, Ostrander Richards. 1910 U.S. Census, Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, population scheduled, Ransom Twp., enumeration district (ED) 50, p. 10A (penned), dwelling 142, family 146, Jennie Richards daughter; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com :    accessed, viewed, downloaded 31 May 2017); citing National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Microfilm publication T624.

[14] 1810 U.S. Census, Luzerne, Pennsylvania, pop. sch., Tunkhannock, p. 763, Thomas Ostrander; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, viewed & downloaded 21 September 2010); citing National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C. Microfilm publication M252. Roll 49.

Finding (or not) a Revolutionary War Patriot ancestor. Part 1: Oral traditions and the case of Jacob Postens.

clipart-of-revolutionary-war-soldiers.med

Revolutionary War Soldier. From CLKR Free clipart

JULY 2018. 

“You’re descended from a Revolutionary War soldier.” Many can prove a direct line back to such a person. For others, like myself, the story stalls out. This story is about Jacob Postens- Revolutionary War Patriot and reported ancestor of my dad, Daniel Richard Posten. In previous posts, I mention Jacob, our family story, my brick wall, and subsequent identification of Thomas Ostrander as my ancestor.  I promised to post details “later”.  “Later” is now here.  I give you the story in two parts:  Part 1 discusses the family story and Jacob Postens. Part 2 relates my discovery of Thomas Ostrander.  This two-part series recalls  information seen in previous posts.

DISCLAIMER:  This post is one of multiple personal efforts to correct misinformation that I distributed during my early years as a genealogist.  I can only claim inexperience and ignorance as a researcher for the error.  

A genealogist reports on an error in her family tree:  An error on an ancestry family tree

Oral Family Traditions

To begin, I received a typewritten genealogy from a cousin in the early 1990s. Ruby Posten Gardiner, my grandfather’s niece,  gave the information to a cousin who forwarded it to me.  [1]

typed Posten lineage

Copy of typewritten genealogy from cousin Ruby.

John R.  Posten is Dad’s father.  Tracing our ancestry  to James D. Posten proved easy enough with death certificates from the state of Pennsylvania  for John[2] (born 1887; died 1948) and his father, Daniel S. Posten (born 1859; died 1918)[3]  I sent for and received a copy of John’s death certificate in 2010. I  found Daniel’s death certificate among records sent to me by the husband of one of John’s nieces. [4] Census records support the information regarding parentage:

1900: [5]  Danial S. Poster, head, 33, b 1867, married 15 years. Lizzie, wife, 40, b 1860, mother of 6 children, 6 still living. William C, son, 14, b1885. John M, son, 12, b 1888. Ethel R, daugh, 10, b1890. Bertha R, daugh, 6, b1894. Martha J, daugh,2,b 1898.

1880: [6] Bostons [Postens], James, 50. Ameriam, 45, wife. Olive, 22, daughter. Daniel, 20, son. Charles E., 17, son. John W., 15, son. George B, 12, son. Ida A, 6, daughter.

1870 : Family moved from Monroe county to Luzerne county ‘about 1870’. Still looking for this record.

1860: [7] (page 75) Jams [James] Posten, 30, day labor; Maryan Posten, 26, domestic; Oliver [Olive], 3, M [F]. (page 76): Danil [Daniel]  Posten, age 1.

So far, so good.  Now came the first stumbling block – how can I prove the names of James’ parents?  I found an 1850 census record for Thomas Postens in Monroe County, Pennsylvania, [8] a place consistent with other records.  James’  recorded age of 19, estimated birth year 1831, is close to estimated birth year  1830 as suggested by 1860, 1880, and 1910[9] census records.  James’ gravestone  [10]  shows his birth year as 1829.  Based on these records, how confident was I that I had found James’ father?  I categorized it as “likely” which, according to Elizabeth Shown Mills, [11] means  “The author feels some evidence supports the assertion, but the assertion is far from proved.”

Remember that the 1850 census does not record the relationship of household members to each other.  Since the surname is the same and ages are logical, James is presumed to be the son of Thomas.   The answer eluded me for months.  While reviewing information for the umpteenth time, I realized that James’ death in 1914 probably meant that he had a state-issued death certificate!

In 2010, I ordered and received a copy of the death certificate for James D. Posten.[12]  Here is a partial transcription:

James D Posten DC transcription

The names of parents on a death certificate are secondary information because the informant was not present at the time of the deceased’s birth.  However, I now believe that 68 year-old Thomas on the 1850 census is probably (more likely than not) the father of James D. Posten.  A picture of Thomas Postens’ grave online[13] shows his birth as 1782 and death as 1854. The Monroe County Historical Society found obituaries for Thomas and his wife, Esther.[14]  Unfortunately, the obituaries contain scant details beyond information about their deaths.  My husband and I visited and photographed the graves of Thomas and Esther  in August 2017. They are buried in a Quaker cemetery. My access to Quaker records is limited to online searches with no results yet found. Local historical societies yielded minimal or no new information about Thomas and Esther.  A 1908 newspaper report about a Posten family reunion recorded Thomas’  birth as “near Englishtown, Monmouth county, N.J. on July 14, 1782” but no information about his parents.[15]

Now, the story deviates from a straight line of evidence.  With no readily available information about Thomas’ parents, I began researching Jacob Postens and his descendants. Perhaps I could find a clue from that angle!

JACOB POSTENS (1755-1831)

disappointed face emjoi

For this post, I describe sources and evidence primarily in the order found.  In 2008, an online family tree listed 7 children of Jacob Posten, including Thomas.[16]  Source of information?  “A message board posting by S. Ellerbee”.  Yes, that was me, repeating information from cousin Ruby, BEFORE I had done the research! My only defense:  “I didn’t know any better”.

In 2010, I decided to apply for membership in the Daughters of the American Revolution. I thought it would be easy! After all, I had the lineage from great-aunt Ruby!  Serious research began by finding and documenting sources and evidence.

I began with census records and located Jacob Poste [Postens] in the 1790 census for Northampton County, Pennsylvania: [17]

Poste, Jacob. 2-3-3-0-0  (Free white males 16 years and upward-Free white males under 16 years-Free white females- other free persons-slaves.

This looked promising! Three free white males under 16 years could include Thomas who was born in 1782.  The 1800 census record for Jacob Postens in Lower Smithfield, Northampton county, Pennsylvania [18] shows 1 free white male, age 16 thru 25. Thomas would be 18 years in 1800. On the same page, a listing for Richard Postens also shows one free white male, 16 thru 25. Because I am researching Jacob, the listing for Richard did not concern me.

Previous experience with a county history book led me to a similar book about Monroe County,  published in 1900, [19]    with an entry for  “Posten family” . Two pages and 6 paragraphs!  “This family is one of the oldest in this section, and its members have been noted in every generation for their thrift, enterprise and public spirit. . . . They are of the fourth generation in descent from Captain Jacob Posten of Revolutionary fame. . . . “  [20]   Brief biographies of Jacob Posten, his six children, selected grandchildren and great-grandchildren followed.  No children named Thomas were listed but this did not deter me!   One of Jacob and Anne’s granddaughters, Mary E. Posten, daughter of James Posten and Mary Dean,  is mentioned with her husband, Charles W. Angle on another page:    “On the paternal side, she is of good old Bucks county stock. . . . “  [21] 

That section names her parents, James Posten and Mary Dean, as well as Mary’s siblings and their spouses.    I again eagerly looked for Thomas with no success.

Jacob is recognized as a Patriot by the D.A.R!  Look for a Revolutionary War Pension claim filed by him or his wife. A digital copy of Jacob Postens claim file (W3296) resides on several websites. [22]  I found the claim, filed by his widow, Ann Burson Postens in 1847.

Educational moment:  Held in the National Archives & Records Administration in Washington, D.C., many of these files are digitized and available on various websites.  Veterans, their widows and other heirs applied to receive a pension and/or a warrant to obtain land.  According to NARA:

“Pension application files usually provide the most genealogical information. These files often contain supporting documents such as: narratives of events during service, marriage certificates, birth records, death certificates, pages from family Bibles, family letters, depositions of witnesses, affidavits, discharge papers and other supporting papers. . . . Bounty land records often contain documents similar to those in pension files, with lots of genealogical information. Many of the bounty land application files relating to Revolutionary War and War of 1812 service have been combined with the pension files.” [23]

Jacob’s file contains affidavits from his widow and his son, James, among others. In her deposition, Anne provided the names and birth dates for their six children:

  1. Sarah or Sally     born August 24, 1783
  2. James                   born August 4, 1784
  3. Charles                 born October 11, 1786
  4. Edward                 born January 10, 1788
  5. William                 born November 15, 1791
  6. Jane                       born February 4, 1798

Six now appears to be the magic number! Go back to the typewritten family genealogy. The document lists Thomas before James, son of Jacob and Anne, suggesting that James Postens and Mary Dean were Thomas’ parents.  I quickly realized that the dates didn’t match.  James, born in 1784, could not possibly be Thomas’ father!  The 1790 and 1800 census records similarly show 6 young persons who were probably Jacob’s children.  Could Thomas still be a son of Jacob or Anne?  Thomas’ date of birth in 1782 places him in the same generation as those listed above.  That possibility cannot be ruled out.

Another county history, published in 1886,[24] provided similar information about Jacob, Ann, and their six children: James, Sally (Mrs. Arthur) Henry, Charles, Edward, William and Jane (Mrs. John Brown).  Some  spouses were also listed in the one paragraph. Briefly mentioned on page 1163 is Edward Postens as manager of the Washington Hotel and his son, Joseph J. Postens.  Although published earlier, I found this book after finding the one published in 1900.

What I learned about these early histories:   You will find similar books published in the late 1800s and early 1900s for other counties.  Look for one about the county where your ancestors resided.   In general, these histories include a history of the county/ counties and its towns as well as biographies of some persons and families. People in the community provided information which may not have been verified.  Use the material as a springboard for your research.

“What are County histories and how they can help with your genealogy”, Blog Post by Will Moneymaker

Several of Jacob and Anne’s known descendants graciously shared their own research with me. To organize the mounds of accumulated paper , I finally entered data into a genealogy software program.  Yes, I should have done that months earlier!  The result is a list of approximately 350 descendants of Jacob Postens and Anne Burson.  For this post, I shortened the list to include only the first four generations  (i.e. children, grandchildren and great-children of Jacob and Anne).

Descendants of Jacob Postens (4 generations) (PDF)

Next, I considered the question:   Did the elderly aunt have the sequence of names mixed up? I   compared information for men named James and Jacob Posten in various generations.  Multiple census records and D.A.R. applications yielded additional persons.  Note:  I do not cite all records here. I am still finding and compiling information about Jacob’s descendants.

My verified ancestor:    James D. Posten , born 1829, Monroe county, PA, married Meriam Mills.

Jacob Postens’ descendants:

James M. Posten, son             born 1784, Pennsylvania               married Mary Dean

James S. Posten, grandson    born 1825, Pennsylvania               married Elizabeth Kintner

James M. Posten, grandson   born 1845, Pennsylvania               married Anna Huntsman

Jacob Posten, grandson          born 1829, New Jersey

The descendant list reveals only one male descendant named Thomas – Thomas Posten Arndt, born 1849, son of Mary Ann Posten and Benjamin Arndt, grandson of William and Phoebe Posten, great-grandson of Jacob Postens and Anne Burson.

Finally, an obituary for Jacob Postens summarized his life but did not list his children. [25]  Publication information reads “The Eaton Centennial, August 19, 1831”.

obit pieced together

William Henry Egle, editor, Notes and Queries: Historical, Biographical and Genealogical: relating chiefly to interior Pennsylvania. [ Fourth Series], 2 vols. (1893; Reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1970), 1: pages 183-184, entry for “Northampton county in the Revolution. Newspaper Notes and Sketches. V. [Obituary, Jacob Postens]”.

 

Summary:  

Thomas Postens birth year of 1782 (1850 census; gravestone)  places him in the same generation as the children of Jacob Postens and Anne Burson. Jacob and Anne had six children, none of whom were named Thomas. My conclusion is based on first hand knowledge and direct evidence (Revolutionary War Pension application) as well as narrative reports and indirect evidence (two county histories, published in 1886 and 1900; census records for 1790 and 1800). None of Jacob and Anne’s sons had children named Thomas.  Similarly, my ancestor, James D. Posten, is certainly not descended from one of Jacob and Anne’s sons (James’ death certificate; newspaper reports).   I consulted mutlple types of sources.  Content about the individual families is primary and secondary; content connecting the two families is of unknown origin.  The evidence that I hoped to find is negative or not present.

Are the two families related?  The odds favor the assertion.  Evidence? Both families lived in Monroe County, Pennsylvania during the early 1800s. Both surnames are spelled with an ‘e’ – Posten or Postens.  Both men reported as born in New Jersey. This possibility continues to haunt me.

Next:   My proven Revolutionary War Patriot:  Thomas Ostrander

reflection-swirl-green-color-hi

REFLECTION 

The family of Jacob Postens is definitely one of my BSOs – those bright shiny objects that distract from other genealogical research projects.  Even though I can prove that Jacob is NOT our direct line ancestor, I keep coming back to him. Why?  I believe that I will eventually find something that links our two families beyond the current circumstantial evidence. Perhaps completion and publication of  a ‘reasonably exhaustive’ research report will suffice?  Or, maybe one of Jacob’s known descendants will take on that task?!?  I will gladly collaborate with someone!

disco-ball-150x150The family of Jacob Postens is definitely one of my BSOs – those bright shiny objects that distract from other genealogical research projects.  Even though I can prove that Jacob is NOT our direct line ancestor, I keep coming back to him. Why?  I believe that I will eventually find something that links our two families beyond the current circumstantial evidence. Insert BSO picture here.  Perhaps completion and publication of  a ‘reasonably exhaustive’ research report will suffice?  Or, maybe one of Jacob’s known descendants will take on that task?!?  I will gladly collaborate with someone!

As I reviewed documents again, I found several online message board postings with information copied directly from a source but without any citations. Similar entries also appear in online family trees.  This is plagiarism. I sometimes ask people for their sources and occasionally get a response.  Since I began my own research, I have gotten more obsessive about citing sources.

What I learned:  writing about genealogical research process is slightly different from writing about your results.  A results-oriented article may or may not cite information in the order in which it was found.  Remember to record date when I find information, as well as location of source and complete citation information. Apply the genealogical proof standard in all cases.  For this post, I did not cite all available sources. An article about the descendants of Jacob Postens and Anne Burson will include all of those sources.

What helped:  previous research done on Jacob and Thomas.

What didn’t help:  Papers in Jacob Postens file are not in any particular order. I haven’t done a recent update of the family group sheets.  No research logs for this family because this is not one of my priority projects. I didn’t always record the date when I found information.

To-do:  Buy Genealogy Proof book.  Seek collaboration with another person for an article about Jacob Postens descendants. Submit article  to either Monroe County or Pennsylvania Genealogical Society.  Include only brief mention about Thomas not being a descendant.  Continue to refine skills regarding citation of sources.  By the end of July, develop research logs for Jacob and Anne.  Continue to develop research logs for each of their children with goal of 6 research logs created by the end of the year.  Review chapter about Thomas Postens written for revised Posten family history.

SOURCES: 

[1] Typewritten genealogy, Posten family tradition regarding lineage of John Posten to Jacob Posten (b 1755) as reported by Ruby Gardiner, granddaughter of Daniel Posten & Phoebe Fulkerson to Vera Posten Brooks, ca. 1989; privately held by Ellerbee, [address for private use,] Yukon, Oklahoma. Copy sent by Ms. Brooks to Ms. Ellerbee about 1990.

[2] Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health, death certificate 63554 (1948), John R. Posten; Bureau of Vital Statistics, New Castle.

[3] Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health, death certificate  103965 (1918), Daniel S. Posten, Bureau of Vital Statistics, New Castle.

[4] Multiple birth, marriage and death records from Personal Collection of Jerry Connors sent to Susan Posten Ellerbee, 2010-2012; privately held by Ms. Ellerbee, [address for private use,] Yukon, Oklahoma. Mr. Connors was husband of daughter of Martha Jane Posten McDonnell, sister of Ms. Posten’s grandfather, John R. Posten.

[5] 1900 U.S. Federal Census, Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Ransom Twp., enumeration district (ED) 40, p. 3B (penned), dwelling 42, family 43, Danial S. Poster [Daniel S. Posten; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded 11 July 2017); citing National Archives & Records Administration_Washington, D.C. microfilm publication T623, roll 1419..

[6]  1880 U.S. Federal Census, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Pittston, enumeration district (ED) 136, p. 18B (penned), dwelling 163, family 177, James Bostons [Posten}; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded July 2012); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Microfilm publication T9, Roll 1150..

[7]  1860 U.S. Federal Census, Monroe county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Price Township, p. 72 (penned), p. 691 (stamped), dwelling 514, family 641, Jams [James] Posten; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded 13 March 2010); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Microfilm publication M653.

[8] 1850 U.S. census, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Hamilton Township, p. 17B (stamped), dwelling 220, family 220, Thomas Portons [Postens]; digital image, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com   :  Accessed 17 Oct 2011 and 3 May 2017); citing National Archive sand Records Administration microfilm M432, roll 798.

[9] 1910 U.S. Federal Census, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Pittston city, p. 6B (penned), dwelling 107, family 115,  James D. Posten, 80, father-in-law, in household of C.B. & Olive Fulkersin.

[10] Pittston Cemetery (Pittston, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania), Posten, James D. & wife, Miriam Mills, top of hill; Photographed by Jerry L. Ellerbee & Susan Posten Ellerbee,  14 August 2017.

[11] Elizabeth Shown Mills, Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources form Artifacts to Cyberspace, 3rd ed. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company), 19.

[12] Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health, death certificate no. 118955 , James D. Posten (1914); Division of Vital Records, New Castle. Received April 2010.

[13] Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed March 2012), memorial page for  Thomas Postens (14 Jul 1782 – 16 Feb 1854),  Find A Grave memorial no. 16812461, citing Friends Burial Ground, Stroudsburg, Monroe County, Pennsylvania; photograph by Frederich Otto. We visited this cemetery in August 2017 and took pictures of Thomas and Esther’s gravestones.

[14] Amy Leiser, Monroe County Historical Society, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, to Phoebe Landfried, letter, 26 April 2012, regarding obituaries for Thomas and Esther Posten; Personal correspondence, 2012; Posten Family, Susan Posten Ellerbee Research File for Thomas Postens, privately held by Ms. Ellerbee, [address for private use,] Yukon, Oklahoma. Copy of letter with documents sent to Ms. Ellerbee by Ms. Landfried, descendant of Olive Jane Posten and C.B. Fulkersin. Olive Jane was daughter of James D. Posten and Meriam Mills and sister of Ms. Ellerbee’s great-grandfather, Daniel S. Posten.

[15] “Posten Family Reunion,” The Wilkes-Barre Record, 11 September 1908; online images, Newspapers.com (http://www.newspapers.com : accessed & printed 18 August 2017), page 5.

[16] Unknown contact, “Jacob Posten”, Ancestry One World Tree Project (http://awtc.ancestry.com/  : accessed  2 Jan 2008).   NOTE:The user submitted family tree databases called OneWorldTree were discontinued by Ancestry in late 2013. The discontinued One World Tree has been replaced by Ancestry.com’s Family Trees”. (http://www.searchforancestors.com/archives/oneworldtree.html  : accessed 26 June 2018)

[17] Bureau of the Census, Heads of families at the first census of the United States taken in the year 1790. Pennsylvania. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1908), p. 175, column 1, Jacob Poste.

[18] 1800 U.S. Census, Northampton county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Lower Smithfield, p. 618 (penned), Jacob Postens; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded 8 November 2011); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C., microfilm publication M32, roll 37.

[19] Commemorative biographical record of Northeastern Pennsylvania including the counties of Susquehanna, Wayne, Pike and Monroe, containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens and many of the early settled families (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co, 1900), entry for POSTEN FAMILY, pp. 1438-1439; download from Wayback Machine (https://archive.org:     12 July 2017).  Originally accessed from Distant Cousin (http://www. distantcousin.com/images/NEPABio/1438.jpg   :  accessed 20 March 2010; this website may no longer be available).

[20] Ibid,p. 1438; 1900 county history.

[21]  Ibid, p. 802; 1900 county history.

[22] Jacob Postens Rev War Pension Claim . Deposition of claimant, Ann Burson Postens, widow’s pension application no. W3296; service of Jacob Postens, state of Pennsylvania; “Revolutionary War Pension and bounty-land warrant application files, 1800-1900”, images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com :  accessed 1 April 2010 and 12 July 2017),  Jacob Postens, citing Case Files of Pension and Bounty-land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, compiled ca. 1800-ca 1912, documenting the period ca 1775-1900, M804 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration [n.d.], Roll 1957.

[23] Genealogy Research in Military Records. National Archives & Records Administration. (https://www.archives.gov/research/military/genealogy.html    : accessed 24 June 2018).

[24] Alfred Matthews, History of Wayne, Pike and Monroe Counties, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: R.T. Peck & Co, 1886), p. 1127; download from Wayback Machine (https://archive.org/details/historyofwaynepi00math   : accessed  March 2010 and 12 July 2017).

[25] William Henry Egle, editor, Notes and Queries: Historical, Biographical and Genealogical: relating chiefly to interior Pennsylvania. [ Fourth Series], 2 vols. (1893; Reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1970), 1: pages 183-184, entry for “Northampton county in the Revolution. Newspaper Notes and Sketches. V. [Obituary, Jacob Postens]”.

© Susan Posten Ellerbee and “Posting Family Roots” blog, 2017-2018.  Excerpts and links may be used when full and clear credit, including appropriate and specific direction to the original content, is given to Susan Posten Ellerbee and Posting Family Roots. Unauthorized use or duplication of material without the written permission of the owner is prohibited.