My brother and I have an ongoing debate. Who is Thomas Postens’ father? My brother believes that his name is William. I believe that his name is Richard. Thomas is our earliest known ancestor. Born in New Jersey in 1782, Thomas died and is buried in Pennsylvania. This post summarizes evidence for both sides of the debate.
Thomas Postens was born near Englishtown, Monmouth County, New Jersey on 14 July 1782. Three sources support this assertion. First, a 1908 newspaper article about Posten family reunion reported this information.  The history was compiled by John Posten, grandson of Thomas Postens and son of James Posten, Thomas’ youngest son. This is a secondary source with indirect information. Second, the 1850 census shows Thomas Postens in Hamilton, Monroe county, Pennsylvania.  This primary source shows Thomas’ age as 68 (consistent with birth year about 1782) and birthplace as New Jersey. The information is possibly direct, i.e. reported by Thomas to the census taker. Third, Thomas’ gravestone in the Friends Burial Ground at Stroudsburg, Monroe county, Pennsylvania, is engraved with his birth and death dates.  The assertion about Thomas’ birth at New Jersey in 1782 is, therefore, certainly true. The exact township and county of his birth are apparently true.
With this information, I pose my first question: Did Richard Postens and/or William Postens live in New Jersey in the 1780s? Evidence was found in tax records for New Jersey dating from 1780.  (Note: I recorded names as spelled on the records). Specifically,
- Records for Richard:
- 1780 – Richard Paeston, Newark Township, Essex county, New Jersey
- 1780 – Richrd Posten, Freehold Township, Monmouth county, New Jersey
- 1781 & 1782 – Richard Postens Freehold Township, Monmouth county, New Jersey
- 1784, 1785, 1786- Richard Postins, Freehold Township, Monmouth county, New Jersey
- 1789- Richard Postens, Freehold Township, Monmouth county, New Jersey
- 1790- Richard Postins, Freehold Township, Monmouth county, New Jersey
- Records for William:
- 1779 – William Postens, Dover Township, Monmouth county, New Jersey
- 1781, 1782, 1784, 1785, 1786, 1789- William Postens, Freehold Township, Monmouth county, New Jersey
Another contender, Charles Postens, also paid taxes in Monmouth county, New Jersey in 1779, 1781 and 1782. This man was ruled out as Thomas’ father based on the Revolutionary War Pension application, filed by his wife, Hannah in 1842. In her statement, Hannah reported one son, “born just previous to the breaking out of the war whose name was William who died in the City of Philadelphia sometime in the winter of 1809 and left a widow whose name was Mary Postens.”
Analysis: Both Richard Postens and William Postens lived in Monmouth county, New Jersey, circa 1782, the date of Thomas’ birth. Freehold, New Jersey, and Englishtown, New Jersey, are about 10 miles apart.
Question 2: Where did Richard Postens and William Postens live in 1790?
According to New Jersey tax records, Richard remained in or near Freehold, New Jersey. The 1790 U.S. Census shows William Poste in Bucks county, Pennsylvania.  The record lists one free white male under 16, one free white male 16 and over and 4 free white females. Birth year estimate for the younger male is between 1774 and 1790 and the older male was born before 1774. A similar census record for Richard has not been found.
Analysis: William Postens in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, circa 1790, had a son born between 1774 and 1790. William’s former residence is not known from this record. Richard Postens still lived in New Jersey in 1790.
Question 3: Where did Richard Postens and William Postens live in 1800?
The 1800 U.S. census shows Richard Postens in Lower Smithfield, Northampton county, Pennsylvania.  The family consisted of: one male under 10, 1 male aged 10 thru 15, one male aged 16 thru 25, one male 45 and over, 1 female under 10, 1 female 10 thru 15, one female 16 thru 25, and one female 26 thru 44. Birth year for male, aged 16 thru 25, calculates as between 1775 and 1784.
William Posty is listed in the 1800 census for Springfield, Bucks county, Pennsylvania. This family consists of one male, aged 10 thru 15 (birth years 1795-1790), one male aged 16 thru 25 (birth years 1775-1784), 2 females aged 16 thru 25 (birth years 1775-1784) and 1 female aged 45 and over (birth before 1755). With no males born before 1774, this William Posty is definitely not the same person as William Postens recorded on the 1790 census. Since only heads of household were recorded, the oldest male is probably William.
Analysis: Richard Postens in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, circa 1800, had a son born between 1775 and 1784. William Posty, age between 16 and 25, is probably the head of a household in Bucks county, Pennsylvania. That William is the son of William Postens from 1790 census is plausible but needs to be tested.
Conclusion: Based on these records, neither Richard Postens nor William Postens can be ruled out as father of our Thomas Postens. Both men apparently lived at Monmouth county, New Jersey, reported birthplace of Thomas, in the early 1780s. Census records suggest that both men had a son born between 1774 and 1790. A search of New Jersey Quaker records may yield new information.
ADDENDUM: A few other records hold clues but don’t seem to answer the question of Thomas’ parentage. Marriage records of the Dutch Reformed Church at Monmouth county, New Jersey indicate a 1770 marriage for Richard Prest and Jenny Van Der Rype and a 1771 marriage for Wm Posty to Anne Coovort.  From the New Jersey Index of Wills, William Postens Jr died in 1794 leaving his wife, Anney, as administratix.  Is this the same William Posty who married Anne Coovort in 1771? Is this the same William Postens who paid taxes in Monmouth County from 1779 through 1789? Could this couple, William and Anne, be Thomas’ parents? Is it possible that our Thomas migrated to Pennsylvania with a relative? If so, did he live with a Postens family or another family? All of these are intriguing questions.
I have gone over these records multiple times. I keep searching online databases for new information. I am beginning to think that only a trip to Monmouth county, New Jersey, would yield new information. I seem to be no nearer the truth than I was 10 years ago.
What I learned: I was so certain that Richard had to be Thomas’ father! The evidence is not clear. Either Richard or William could be Thomas’ father. Consider also that Thomas’ father could be another person entirely!
What helped: extensive records and notes in both paper and digital files. As usual, writing the post put things into perspective.
What didn’t help: scattered notes, undated items.
To-do: Keep looking! Keep detailed, extensive notes. Date each item as I find it. Review files periodically.
 “Posten Family Reunion,” The Wilkes-Barre Record, 11 September 1908; online images, Newspapers.com (http://www.newspapers.com : accessed & printed 18 August 2017).
. 1850 U.S. Census, Monroe county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Hamilton, p. 17B, dwelling 220, family 220, Thomas Portons [Postens]; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed, downloaded, printed 1 July 2020); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication M432_798.
. Friends Burial Ground (Stroudsburg, Monroe, Pennsylvania), Thomas Postens, stone marker; photographed by Jerry L. Ellerbee, 14 August 2017.
 “New Jersey, Compiled Census and Census substitutes Index, 1643-1890, “ database, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 June 2020). Entries for Richard Postens, William Postens, William Poste and Charles Postens.
. “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Application Files,” , database with images, Fold3 (http://www.fold3.com : accessed 1 July 2020), Charles Postens, New Jersey, W3157; citing Case Files of Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, compiled ca. 1800 – ca. 1912, documenting the period ca. 1775 – ca. 1900, National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C., microfilm publication M804, roll 1957.
 1790 U.S. Census, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, no town given, page 112, line 5, William Pofte[Poste]; digital images, Ancestry ( http://www.ancestry.com : viewed & downloaded 30 January 2020); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication M637, roll 8.
 1800 U.S. Census, Northampton county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Lower Smithfield, p. 618, line 24, Richard Postens; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed & downloaded 29 May 2020); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication M32, roll 37.
.1800 U.S. Census, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Springfield, page 282, image 124, line 22, William Posty; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed 13 June 2020); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication M32, roll 282.
 Holland Society of New York, “U.S. Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989: Freehold and Middletown, Part 1, Book 61A,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed & printed 29 March 2020), pg. 270, entry 111, Richard Prest to Jenny Von Der Rype; citing Dutch Reformed Church Records from New York and New Jersey, The Archives of the Reformed Church in America, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
 “New Jersey, Abstract of Wills, 1670-1817,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 10 July 2020), pg. 287, entry for 1794, Oct. 18. Postens, William, Jr.; citing New Jersey, Published Archive Series, First Series (Trenton, New Jersey: John L. Murphy Publishing: no date); New Jersey State Archives.