A different standard for remembering Union and Confederate veterans?

“The ladies. . . decided to lay a few stems for those men, too, in recognition not of a fallen Confederate or a fallen Union soldier, but a fallen American.”  –

President Barack Obama, 2010 Memorial Day Address, relating an event in 1866 when women of Columbus, Mississippi, laid flowers on graves of both Union and Confederate soldiers.

“It is estimated that one in three Southern households lost at least one family member.”

“Civil War Casualties: The Cost of War: Killed, Wounded, Captured and Missing,” American Battlefield Trust : accessed 9 July 2020.

Yes, soldiers on both sides were Americans. Each side carried a different flag. So, why can’t we honor each one with the appropriate flag?  Our family tree has both Union and Confederate soldiers in it.  I feel that recent protestors want us to forget our Confederate ancestors. We can’t change our ancestry. We can’t change the choices they made. We can try to understand the societal and historical events that shaped their lives. I believe that history lessons should include both good and bad as well as divergent viewpoints.  This post is my reaction to current events.

The protests began as a reaction to the death of George Floyd and police brutality. Demands for removing statues of Confederate soldiers and slave holders increased. Protestors spray painted statues and physically removed others.  Even a statue of George Washington, our nation’s first President and a slave holder, was not exempt. Protestors seemed to ignore history as they defaced a statue of an abolitionist.

History typically relates the broad picture and tells about the people who influenced that history.  Stories of the common people ( i.e., those whose lives were directly and indirectly influenced by those in power) are less often told.  In my opinion, our job, as genealogists, is to tell the stories of those common people, our ancestors and their families.

Read this heartfelt article, published in 2017:  George Burrell, “Confederate and Union Flags of the Civil War,  Century City News (Los Angeles, California), 21 August 2017,  (http://centurycity.news/confederate-and-union-flags-of-the-civil-war-p971-211.htm

In response to someone else’s blog, one person noted that only a few of her 3X great-grandfathers actually fought for the Confederacy.  One of my 8 great-great grandfathers served in the Union Army.  For my husband, two of his 8 great-great grandfathers and one of his 16 great-great-great grandfathers served in the Confederate Army.  Many more in both family trees were of any age to fight. My sons carry genes from persons who supported both sides of the conflict.

According to the American Battlefield Trust  (https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/civil-war-casualties), there were 1,089,119 Confederate soldiers. Of those, 490,309 were reported as killed, wounded, captured or missing.  Millions of Americans are descended from these soldiers. Now, some people want to prevent the simple act of placing a flag on a veteran’s grave.  Denying this right sends the message that Confederate veterans are not worthy of being honored for their sacrifice.

Some demand the removal of statues, memorials and other reminders of the Confederacy as these are seen as symbols of slavery, racial segregation and white supremacy.  One example of this view is Senator Elizabeth Warren’s recent proposal. Read this press release. Posted 30 June 2020:  “Warren delivers floor speech on her amendment to rename all bases and other military assets honoring the Confederacy,” Elizabeth Warren website (https://www.warren.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/warren-delivers-floor-speech-on-her-amendment-to-rename-all-bases-and-other-military-assets-honoring-the-confederacy  :    accessed 2 July 2020).

An NBC journalist presented the opposite view: Sophia A. Nelson, “Don’t take down Confederate monuments. Here’s why.” Posted 1 june 2017, NBC News (https://www.nbcnews.com/think/news/opinion-why-i-feel-confederate-monuments-should-stay-ncna767221 : accessed 2 July 2020).

How will our descendants look at the current events a hundred years from now? Will we be lauded for our efforts? Will we be criticized? Will our descendants even know about the Civil War and its controversies? Will our descendants be aware of the multiple perspectives surrounding the current debate?

My hopes for the future?  I DON’T WANT my descendants to be ashamed of their Southern heritage. I DON’T WANT my descendants to judge their ancestors’ choices based on current values and belief systems. I DO WANT my descendants to have the freedom to acknowledge that they have ancestors who fought in the Confederacy. I DO WANT my descendants to relate circumstances that created the rift between Northern and Southern states. I DO WANT my descendants to recognize the values and beliefs that guided their ancestors’ choices.  I DO WANT my descendants to compare and contrast the various perspectives surrounding current 21st century issues. I DO WANT my descendants to have the freedom to honor their Confederate ancestors by placing a Confederate flag on the graves of those ancestors.  In short, I DO WANT my descendants to remember the history of the Civil War and that soldiers on both sides fought for a cause that they believed in.  In the same way, I DO WANT my descendants to recall that, in 2020, people held differing beliefs about how the United States should remember those who fought in the Confederacy and the Union.

© Susan Posten Ellerbee and Posting Family Roots Blog, 2020.

Nellie’s parents were born in USA

A brick wall without a hole or chink or a hurdle to hop over? Depends on your perspective and the status of your research.  In the case of Nellie Black Johnson’s parents, the wall has a tiny peephole. This post describes positive and negative evidence about Nellie’s parents and suggests next steps.

Nellie Black Johnson, my husband’s great-grandmother, married Henry Louis Johnson about 1910, likely at Limestone county, Texas [online tree with no source reported].  Her death certificate claims her race as White; birth date, place and parents as 16 January 1888 in Texas to C.W. Black and Mary Bull. [1]  The Johnson family was in Limestone county by the mid-1870s. Nell died on 2 May 1960 in Mexia, Limestone county, Texas and is buried in the Point Enterprise Cemetery. Informant was her oldest daughter, Katie Johnson Brannon.  Next steps: Determine place of birth for Nell’s parents using 1920 and 1930 census for Nell and Henry.  1940 census lists place of birth for the person but not parents.

Evidence:  

1930 census. Mexia, Limestone county, Texas. Henry L. Johnson, age 46; wife, Nellie Johnson, age 42; eight children:  Katie, 18; Luther C, 17; Horace C, 14; Alice P, 12; Annie R, 10; Edith N, 8; Mary L, 4; and Marie A, 1. [2]  Race, W [white] for all. Birthplace of Nellie’s father and mother recorded as “United States” and “United States”. Birthplace for both of Henry’s parents recorded as “Mississippi.”

1920 census. Enterprise, Limestone county, Texas. H.L. Johnson, age 35; wife, Kellie [per transcription] Johnson, age 32; 5 children:  Kate, 9; Clyde, 7; Horace, 5; Pauline, 2 7/12; Ruth, 2 months. [3] Race: W [white] for all. Birthplace of Nellie’s father and mother recorded as “USA” and “USA”. Birthplace for both of Henry’s parents recorded as “Mississippi.”

Analysis:   Listing parents as born in “United States” and “USA” seems odd. This is the first time that I encountered an entry like this. Perhaps she didn’t know or didn’t remember. Perhaps they said nothing more for a reason. Possible that Nellie knew but didn’t want to reveal that information? If not, why not?  

1920 census instructions for enumerators may shed some light (page 31, item 147, column 21)[4]:

“In case, however, a person does not know, the state or Territory of birth of his father, but knows that he was born in the United States, write United States rather than ” unknown.”

Enumerators for 1930 census received similar instructions (page 29, item 174, columns 19 and 20). [5]

According to a source at the Oklahoma History Center in Oklahoma City[6],  USA was sometimes used to designate birth in Oklahoma Territory or Indian Territory before Oklahoma statehood in 1907. This leads to the possibility that Nellie’s parents were born in Oklahoma Territory, Indian Territory or another territory.

Nellie & Henry Johnson, date unknown, circa 1950-1955? Personal collection, Susan Posten Ellerbee [Yukon, Oklahoma]

My mother-in-law reported that her grandmother was Native American, according to oral family history. Mother-in-law sent DNA to two companies. Neither one reported any Native American ancestry.

“Anyone with even a single indigenous American ancestor has indigenous American ancestry, but not everyone with an indigenous American ancestor has indigenous American DNA.” [7] 

Could Nellie’s Native American roots be so far back that they don’t show up in the current generation?  Do other descendants of Nellie have Native American genes in their DNA?

Next step- 1910 census.  April 1910. Waco City, McLennan, Texas.[8] 22 year-old Nellie Black, boarder, birthplace Texas, living with Sarah J. Bull, 45, head of household and her 4 children.  Nellie’s parents recorded as born in Texas.  Is Sarah J Bull related to Nellie’s mother, Mary Bull?  No definitive information about Sarah J Bull yet. Is this even our Nellie?

At least two online trees identify a South Carolina family consisting of C.W. and Mary Black as Nellie’s parents.[9], [10] According to census records, William Caleb Black and wife, Mary, lived in South Carolina continuously from 1870 to 1920. 1900 Census[11] shows a child, Nellie Black, born 1886 in South Carolina. Family does not appear to have ever left South Carolina.  Conclusion:  William Caleb Black, South Carolina, is not C.W. Black, father of Nellie Black.

From the scant evidence, I make these propositions:

  1. Nellie’s parents did not tell her where in the United States they were born.
  2. Nellie did not want to reveal where her parents were born.  
  3. Nellie’s parents were born in one of the territories prior to statehood.  
  4. Nellie’s ancestry does not include Native Americans.
  5. Nellie’s Native American heritage was not passed on genetically to her granddaughter.

I contacted DNA matches who have surnames of Johnson, Black and Bull.  One person shared some leads that are now on my to-do list.  Late last night, I found two interesting census records and will follow those clues later.

Reflection

March is Women’s History Month. This post briefly outlines one woman- Nellie Kay Janet Black Johnson, my mother-in-law’s paternal grandmother- and our DNA dilemma. This year, I plan to look deeper into my mother-in-law’s family.   I continue to work on goals related to other families.  

I am somewhat discouraged by the status of family trees on my computer-based genealogy program. I thought that I was making such good progress with my Genealogy Do-Over! Dad’s tree, the first one used for Do-Over, still needs work. Rewriting Posten family history will certainly help there! Other trees are in various states of repair.  Thanks to the Do-Over, I made a back-up every time that I worked on a tree. I re-opened the latest version and re-named with 2020 in the title. Note to self –one person and one family at a time!

What I learned:  A little more about DNA testing.  

What helped:  Picture of Nellie. List of DNA relatives for mother-in-law. Response from one DNA relative. Remembering that a genetic cousin is always a genealogical cousin. Just need to find the genealogical relationship! Writing this post.

What didn’t help: Ineffective and late night searches. I need to try different strategies!  Work on the brick walls earlier in the day. Not tracking what I found.

To-do:  Create research logs for Sarah J. Bull and others as I search; document findings. If needed, set aside for a week or two.  Follow leads from DNA match and census records.

© Susan Posten Ellerbee and Posting Family Roots blog, 2020


SOURCES:

[1] “Texas, Death Certificates, 1903-1982,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com  : viewed & downloaded 27 February 2020), entry for Nell Johnson; citing Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, Texas; certificate no. 37422.

[2]. 1930 U.S. Census, Limestone county, Texas, population schedule, Mexia, enumeration district (ED) 11, pg. 6B, dwelling 135, family 149, Johnson Nellie, wife, age 42; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com  : accessed & downloaded 26 Feb  2020); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication T626, roll 2371.

[3]. 1920 U.S. Census, Limestone county, Texas, population schedule, Pt Enterprise School District, enumeration district (ED) 81, p. 3A, dwelling 41, family 47, H.L. Johnson head, age 32; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com  : viewed & downloaded 26 Feb  2020); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication T625_1829.

[4] Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States, January 1, 1920, Instructions to Enumerators (Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1919), digital image;  United States Census Bureau (. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/programs-surveys/decennial/technical-documentation/questionnaires/1920instructions.pdf  : Accessed 26 Feb 2020).

[5] Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States, January 1, 1920, Instructions to Enumerators, Population and Agriculture (Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1930), digital image;  United States Census Bureau (. https://www.census.gov/history/pdf/1930instructions.pdf  : Accessed 26 Feb 2020).

[6]Susan M. Ellerbee,  handwritten notes, 27 July 2014, in vertical file for Henry Louis Johnson and Nellie Black.

[7] “Indigenous Americas Region, “ Ancestry Support (https://support.ancestry.com/s/article/Native-American-DNA  : accessed 27 Feb 2020).

[8]. 1910 U.S. Census, McLennan county, Texas, population schedule, Waco City, enumeration district (ED) 89, sheet 25B, dwelling 276, family 298, Nellie B. Black, age 22; Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com   : accessed 26 Feb 2020; citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. , microfilm publicationT624_1575.

[9] Camtrot, “Trotter Family Tree,” Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/20201602/person/943537300/facts  : accessed 26 Feb 2020), “C.W. Black,” born and died in South Carolina.

[10] GaryTaylor8958, “Lynda Jean Martin Family Tree,” Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/9918609/person/-693511314/facts   :  accessed 26 Feb 2020, “William Caleb Black,” born South Carolina; last census record 1920 in Garvin, Anderson, South Carolina.

[11] 1900 U.S. Census, Anderson county, South Carolina, population schedule, Garvin, enumeration district (ED) 52, sheet 20A, dwelling 217, family 225, Nellie Black, age 14; Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com   : accessed 26 Feb 2020). Nellie listed as born in South Carolina.

Thinking of Thanksgiving

Sharing of my genealogy journey needs a short break. In my next post, I  resume telling the stories of 4 blended families- James T.L. Powell and his 1st wife, Deborah Daniel; James T.L. Powell and his 2nd wife, Catherine Brown; Catherine Brown Powell and her 2nd husband, Elias Barker; Elias Barker and his 1st wife, Euna Barber. 

Thanksgiving in America is generally viewed as a time for family. Many have Pilgrim and /or Native American ancestors in their family trees. Our American holiday originated with a specific event – English immigrants in Massachusetts sharing a harvest celebration with Native Americans. However, one part of the story is often forgotten. The Native Americans taught the  newcomers basic survival skills such as planting crops, caring for plants and eventually, harvesting food. 

The Puritan/ Pilgrim settlement in Massachusetts was not the first European settlement on the North American continent.  Jamestown, Virginia was founded in 1607, thirteen years before the Pilgrims landed.  Early settlements included, but were not limited to:

1565: Saint Augustine, Florida, founded by the Spanish

1608: Quebec, Canada, founded by the French

1615:  Fort Nassau (New York), founded by the Dutch

Some Native Americans do not view our American Thanksgiving Day favorably. Since Europeans first landed here, we pushed Native Americans from their traditional homes. Some Native American tribes were decimated by illnesses brought by the Europeans. Other tribes were removed to make way for growing numbers of white settlers. Native American rights were largely ignored in treaties.

So, on this day, enjoy time with your family and celebrate the harvest. Give thanks for the sacrifices of all. Oh, yes, one more thing. These holidays are great for seeking help to answer those burning genealogy questions you’ve discovered.  Share your findings.  Print a 1 or 2-page summary for people to take home. Ask if anyone has great-grandma’s death certificate or obituary. Who has the oldest family Bible? Take notes when your uncle tells about an ancestor, especially if he heard the story from one of his grandparents or one of his grandpa’s brothers or  an elderly aunt.  You may be pleasantly surprised by what you learn! Remember, too, every family has saints and sinners, scoundrels and heroes.   

To read more about Native American views of Thanksgiving, start with these articles:

“Do Native Americans celebrate Thanksgiving?” Powwows.com, 19 November2019 (https://www.powwows.com/do-native-americans-celebrate-thanksgiving/    : accessed 27 November 2019).

Kisha James.  “For me, Thanksgiving is a ‘Day of  Mourning’” Refinery29, 21 November 2016 (https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2016/11/130572/day-of-mourning-thanksgiving-protest-native-americans    : accessed 21 November 2019.

Nadra Kareem Nittle, “Should we celebrate thanksgiving and the Pilgrims?”.  ThoughtCo, updated 29 July 2019  (https://www.thoughtco.com/do-native-americans-celebrate-thanksgiving-2834597  : accessed 23 November 2019).

“What does Thanksgiving mean to Native Americans?” Native Hope (https://blog.nativehope.org/what-does-thanksgiving-mean-to-native-americans    : accessed 22 November 2019). Blog post, undated.

Have a blessed and happy day!

Moving south: Historical and financial clues to John Ellerbee’s migration

My husband’s ancestor, John E. Ellerbee, married twice. The identity of his first wife remains elusive. Wife #1 gave birth to 4 children between 1830 and 1840.  John’s marriage to Martha Love in September 1842 suggests that Wife #1 died about 1841 or 1842.  John sired 12 children with Martha Love. 

First, I reported on John E. Ellerbee and his two wives. Then, I described the family’s southwards migration pattern from eastern Georgia to western Florida.  I posed a question: “Why did John move south?”  Now, I continue the saga with clues found in historical and financial records.

 John E. Ellerbee was born about 1808 in Burke county, Georgia. [1] Burke county resides on Georgia’s eastern border with South Carolina. From there, John moved west and south to Houston county, then south to Randolph, Baker and Calhoun counties.  His southern migration continued to Florida, first to Jackson county in the Panhandle then to Hillsborough county on Florida’s west coast.

Why did John move south?  After my last post, I found a privately published, typewritten manuscript[2] that appears to be the precursor to the printed Ellerbe family history. [3]  Morris “Buck” Ellerbee commented on John’s south-westerly moves:

South-western Georgia was the West of the day
and that is where new and cheap land was to be found. . . 
and it appears that John Ellerbee kept moving Westward 
as new lands became available. . . . [and] 
(1) the family is larger, and (2) the family fortune is larger. 
The 1860 census lists John Ellerbee’s property as follows: 
real estate valued at $3000; and personal property valued 
at $4500. Three thousand dollars of “cheap land” could have 
been considerable acres. And since his personal property was
surely made up largely of mules and slaves. . . 
there must have been quite a number of them.  [4]

The “cheap land” in southwestern Georgia originally belonged to the Creek Indians. [5]  Review the formation of relevant Georgia counties:

  • Houston county (John’s location in 1830 and 1840), formed 1821 from Indian land cession.
  • Randolph county (location of John and Martha’s marriage in 1842), created 1828 from Lee county. Lee county formed 1827 from Indian land cession. 
  • Baker county (John’s location in 1850 and 1860) formed 1824 from Early county. Early county created 1818 from Creek Indian land cession.
  • Calhoun county (John’s location in 1860) formed 1854 from Early county.  

This discovery adds a sad historical perspective to John’s story.  Our ancestor benefitted from the removal of the Creek Indians from Georgia to Alabama (about 1826) and their eventual removal to Oklahoma Territory in 1836.[6]  The Cherokee Indians, who lived in northwestern Georgia, experienced similar forced removals, known as the “Trail of Tears”.  Our ancestor gained while others were forcibly moved from ancestral homelands.

The map illustrates Indian Land Cessions in Georgia and the dates of those cessions. The original map is titled ‘Indian Land Cessions in the United States.” Georgia Map 15, United States Digital Map Library.  http://usgwarchives.net/maps/cessions/ilcmap15.htm . Map with dates downloaded from Don & Diane Wells, “The loss of the remaining Creek Indian Territory,”  Smoke Signals: News and views from Big Canoe and around North Georgia, digital edition (https://www.bigcanoenews.com/news/news-col1/columns/6447-the-loss-of-the-remaining-creek-indian-territory

I do not dispute that both the family and the family fortunes increased.[7]  Census records are clear on those issues. The number of children in the household increased from 4 in 1840[8] to 8 in 1850[9] and 12 in 1860[10].  John’s real estate was valued at $2500 in 1850[11] . Mr. Ellerbee reversed the numbers for the 1860 census:  $4500 in real estate and $3000 in personal property.[12]  Family tradition says that “John Ellerbee was considered a wealthy man before the Civil War.” [13]

One of John’s sons kept “a trunkful of worthless Confederate money” inherited from his father.[14]  In my last post, I asserted that the family moved circa 1863-1866 from Calhoun county, Georgia in 1860 to Jackson county, Florida by 1870, based on reported birth and marriage dates for children.  Buck Ellerbee suggested that “he [John] made the move during the Civil War when it was still possible for him to convert his holdings to cash- even though it was Confederate cash.”[15]  This makes sense and likely answers when and why they moved to Florida.

John was a slave owner.  Pre-Civil war census records show that he owned 1 or 2 slaves at any given time:  1840[16] – 2 slaves; 1850[17]:  1 slave; 1860[18]:  2 slaves.  These numbers dispute Buck Ellerbee’s claim that “there must have been quite a number of them [mules and slaves].” What effect did emancipation of the slaves have on John and his family? Unknown but possibly minimal. 

Personal note:  The concept of equating mules with slaves is repulsive to me. We accept the fact that my husband’s ancestors owned slaves. However, that doesn’t negate my gut reaction.  

How many acres of land did John own?  In 1883, John Ellerbee bought 159 acres “east of Tallahassee Meridian in Florida.” [19] How much land did he buy and sell in Georgia? How much livestock did John own? How productive was the land?  That, my friends, will be subject for next post after I locate and review the agriculture census records.

SUMMARY. Why did John choose to move south rather than west? I believe the question has been answered. During the decades before the Civil War, the lure of cheap land was likely a definite factor. The cost to the Indian tribes may not even have concerned John.  The reason for moving to Florida is less clear. Did John foresee the defeat of the Confederacy?  Did he attempt to minimize his losses by moving to Florida before the end of the Civil War?  Buck Ellerbee’s belief—that John used Confederate money for his initial purchase of land in Florida- suggests that the answer to both questions is “Yes.”   

For more information about Creek and Cherokee Indians in Georgia:

Brian Hicks. Toward the setting sun:  John Ross, the Cherokees, and the Trail of Tears. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2011.

Claudi Saunt. “Creek Indians.” New Georgia Encyclopedia, (https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/creek-indians  :  accessed 30 August 2019);  original 20 July 2018.

Don & Diane Wells, “The loss of the remaining Creek Indian Territory,”  Smoke Signals: News and views from Big Canoe and around North Georgia, digital edition (https://www.bigcanoenews.com/news/news-col1/columns/6447-the-loss-of-the-remaining-creek-indian-territory;  accessed 30 August 2019); originally published 30 November 2001; created online 14 October 2014.

REFLECTION:

I am constantly amazed about what is available on the internet. The typewritten LRB manuscript, dated 1963, is new to me. Digitized in 2018, it popped up on a Google search.  Some information clearly made its way to Ronald William Ellerbe’s 1986 print book. The 1963 manuscript contains more details about John Ellerbee and his family.  The “Ellerbee’s of early Georgia” section expanded my knowledge and led me to new insights.  The Ellerbee family apparently owned land near the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.   😔– another lead to follow!

Each post starts short and focused but seems to expand as if it has a life of its own. My goal of about 1500 words is often tested (1462 words in this post). I foresee a journal article about John E. Ellerbee??

What I learned:  Buck Ellerbee talked with elderly descendants of John Ellerbee, some of whom were  John’s grandchildren. These persons are now deceased. Buck’s insights paralleled some of my own and provided some new ones.

What helped:  Finding LRB manuscript.  Thank you, Internet Archive!!

What didn’t help:  Feeling overwhelmed.  Clean-up of records for Ellerbee family tree has stalled.  I have been sick with bronchitis for a week and didn’t get to state history center library.

TO-DO:   Locate and read books/ articles about removal of Creek and Cherokee Indians from Georgia. Found one book at local library—still reading.  Review source citations in LRB manuscript. Library at Oklahoma History Center has some potentially useful books and other sources. Explore BLM land records. Locate agriculture census schedules for John Ellerbee. Locate and read information about Pee Dee River settlers.


SOURCES:

[1] 1850 census. 1850 U.S. Federal Census, Baker County, Georgia, population schedule, District 3, p. 49 B (penned), dwelling 1111, family 141, John E. Ellerbee; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded 3 January 2018); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Roll M432_61.

[2] LRB typewritten manuscript; digitized by Internet Archive 2018. Ronald W. Ellerbe & Morris B. Ellerbee, LRB, Ellerby, Ellerbe, Ellerbee. (privately printed, 1963). Digital copy, The  Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/lrbellerbyellerb00elle  : accessed and printed, 27 August 2019). Sections ‘The Ellerbee’s of early Georgia’ and ‘John Ellerbee (1808-1885) probably written by Morris B. (Buck) Ellerbee, a descendant of John.  Source citations minimal but records can be found. 

[3] Ronald William Ellerbe, The Ellerbe Family History (Baltimore, MD: Gateway Press, Inc., 1986), p. 14-41.

[4] LRB bio p. 31. Ellerbe & Ellerbee, LRB, Ellerby, Ellerbe, Ellerbee, 31.

[5] “Georgia county creation and parent counties,” Family Search Wiki (https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Georgia_County_Creation_Dates_and_Parent_Counties :  accessed 25 August 2019).

[6]. Don and Diane Wells. “The loss of the remaining Creek Indian territory,” Smoke Signals: News and views from Big Canoe and around North Georgia, front page; digital edition (https://www.bigcanoenews.com/news/news-col1/columns/6447-the-loss-of-the-remaining-creek-indian-territory;  accessed 30 August 2019). Originally published 30 November 2001; created online 14 October 2014.  

[7] According to Buck Ellerbee, “Tradition also says that John Ellerbee was married three times, and fathered 24 children. . 17 living to maturity” (Ellerbe & Ellerbee, LRB, Ellerby, Ellerbe, Ellerbee, 31). “The spread in years between Edward [born 1831] and Elizabeth (born 1836] [per 1850 census]” is given as evidence. I may need to re-write earlier post!

[8] Abstracted by Lorraine H. Robinson, “1840 Federal Census Houston County, Georgia (file 2 of 5),” database, US Gen Web (http://files.usgwarchives.net/ga/houston/census/1840/pg373.txt : downloaded & printed 29 August 2011), page 10 sheet no. 376, line 21, John Ellerbee; citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microflim publication M704, reel 43.

[9] 1850 U.S. Federal Census, Baker County, Georgia, population schedule, District 3, p. 49B (ink pen), dwelling 1111, family 141, John E. Ellerbee.

[10] 1860 U.S. Census, Calhoun county, Georgia, population schedule, District 3, p. 42 (ink pen), dwelling 289, family 289, John E Ellerbee; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed & downloaded 3 May 2019); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication M654_113.

[11] 1850 U.S. Federal Census, Baker County, Georgia, population schedule, District 3, p. 49B (ink pen), dwelling 1111, family 141, John E. Ellerbee.

[12] 1860 U.S. Census, Calhoun county, Georgia, population schedule, District 3, p. 42 (ink pen), dwelling 289, family 289, John E Ellerbee.

[13] Ellerbe & Ellerbee, LRB, Ellerby, Ellerbe, Ellerbee, 31-32.

[14] Ellerbe & Ellerbee, LRB, Ellerby, Ellerbe, Ellerbee, 30. 32. Ellerbe, The Ellerbe Family History, 14-41.

[15] Ellerbe & Ellerbee, LRB, Ellerby, Ellerbe, Ellerbee, 32.

[16] Abstracted by Lorraine H. Robinson, “1840 Federal Census Houston County, Georgia (file 2 of 5),” database page 10 sheet no. 376, line 21, John Ellerbee.

[17] 1850 U.S. Census, Baker county, Georgia, slave schedule, District 3, no page number, John Ellerbee, owner; digital image, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com   : printed & downloaded 3 May 2019); citing National Archives & Records Administration, microfilm publication M432.

[18] 1860 U.S. Census, Calhoun county, Georgia, slave schedule, 3rd District, p. 265 (stamp), John Elerbee, owner; digital image, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com  : printed & downloaded 3 May 2019); citing National Archives & Records Administration, microfilm publication M653.

[19] Certificate of the Register of Land to John Ellerbee; United States Bureau of Land Management “U.S. General Land Office Records, 1716 – 2015,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded 6 September 2019); citing Automated Records Project; Federal Land Patents, State Volumes, Springfield, Virginia: Bureau of Land Management, Eastern States, 2007.

© Susan Posten Ellerbee and Posting Family Roots blog, 2019

Valentine in Mom’s Family Tree

Do you have a Valentine in your family tree? In February 2018, I posted the story of Valentine Creager, my husband’s ancestor.  Now, I relate the story of Valentine Maurer, my mother’s ancestor. The story begins in Germany and ends in New York.

Valentine Maurer graphic1

How do you pronounce “Maurer”? According to mom, the name sounded like “more- er”. As with other stories about mom’s family, I started with Great-Aunt Viola’s handwritten family history. [1]  Part of my grandmother’s ancestry reads:

GRANDPARENTS
Valentine Maurer, 2/12/1827 – ? 
[Born] Alsace-Lorraine Germany
[Wife] Kathrine Korzelins  11/4/1824- 2/14/ ?
(She died on Valentine Maurer’s namesake day one year after his death. She was born in Baden-Baden Germany)
GREAT GRANDPARENTS
Philip Jacob Maurer
Born in Kolncolnge Germany. Date unknown
Anna Metzger
Born in Holland. Date Unknown

My focus was clear – to discover the story of Valentine and Kathrine. Spelling of Kathrine’s name varies and is reported here as spelled on each document.

Valentin Maurer was born on 9 February 1827 in Niederhausen, Freiburg, Baden, Germany. [2] His parents were Leonhard Maurer and Maria Anna Metzger. Note the different father listed on the baptismal record and Viola’s history. This is one of the few items not supported by other sources.

The 1860 census[3]  for Valentine and Catharine Maurer provided an early clue. The family appeared in Galloway, Atlantic county, New Jersey on 15 August 1860:

  • Valentine Maurer, age 31, laborer, born Germany
  • Catherine Maurer, age 31, born Germany
  • Valentine Maurer, age 2, born New Jersey
  • Herman Maurer, age 7/12, born New Jersey (my great-grandfather)

Since both children were born in New Jersey, Valentine and Catharine apparently immigrated to the United States by about 1857.

By 1863, the family had moved from New Jersey to Brooklyn, Kings county, New York. Valentine Maurer, age 34, birthplace Germany, appears on a Civil War Draft Registration Record. [4] I haven’t found any Civil War service records for him.

Where was the family in 1870? I am still looking! See “Name variations in census records: Maurer & Klee”  In 1880 [5], they still lived in Brooklyn, Kings county, New York.  Four children had joined the family (as transcribed):

  • Mauiner, Valentine, W M, 52, head, machinist, born Baden, father born Baden, mother born Baden.
  • Annie C, wife, W F, 32, born Prussia, father born Prussia, mother born Prussia
  • Valentine, son,  W M, 22, machine building shop, born New Jersey
  • Herman, son, W M, 20, brass moulder, born New Jersey.
  • Kattie, daughter, W F, 14, paper box maker, born New York.
  • Rosie, daughter, W F , 12, at home, born New York.
  • Joseph, son, W F, age 9, at school, born New York.
  • Edward, son, W M, 5, at home, born New York.

The six years difference between the births of Herman and Kattie suggest that Valentine may have served in the Civil War. Names of the children on these two census records correspond to Viola’s information except for one item. She did not record any information about the oldest son, Valentine. Viola may not have known about Herman’s older brother or had forgotten him. 

Valentine Maurer II died on 21 March 1888 at the age of 29 years 10 months and 21 days in Brooklyn, Kings county, New York.[6] Cause of death?  “Asthema”.  Calculated birthdate is 1 May 1858. This is consistent with his age of 2 years on 1860 census. Residency in Brooklyn for 25 years further supports the family’s move to New York by 1863. 

DISCREPANCY:  According to his death certificate, Herman was born on 16 October 1858. [7]  However, Herman’s age of 7/12 in August 1860 suggests birth in February 1860. Did I identify the correct family on 1860 census? If so, why the difference? 

Map of Germany showing Baden and Prussia from Encyclopedia Brittanica

Source:  https://www.britannica.com/place/Prussia.  Accessed 10 August 2018

Family origins Baden is in the southwest corner of Germany near France. This western German border, also known as Alsace-Lorraine, alternated between French and Germany rule throughout its history.   Prussia, in the northwest corner of Germany, is now part of Russia.

 In 1883, Valentine and Anna Katharina wrote in the autograph book of Anna Klee, Herman’s future wife. Read more about Anna’s autograph book in “Sources” section of this post. Both entries were written in German. Her signature as  “Anna Katharina Maurer” confirms use of both names. [8]

Valentine may have traveled back to Germany in June 1888 [9] then returned to the United States in September 1888.[10]  The traveler’s age of 61 suggests a possible identification.  Did this journey occur because of the death of his oldest son in March 1888?

The 1892 New York State census fills a gap left by the mostly destroyed 1890 census records. Valentine, age 65, and Annie, age 64, lived on Hopkins Street in Brooklyn, Kings county, New York at that time.[11] Three of their children still lived with them:  Rosie, age 24, box maker; Joseph, age 23, brass worker; and Edward, age 17, mechanic. Valentine and Annie’s status as  “C” or “citizen” suggests that both were now naturalized American citizens.

Valentine Maurer, age 71 years 7 months 9 days, died on 21 September 1898 in his home, 169 Hopkins Street, Brooklyn, Kings, New York. [12], [13]   His calculated birth date is 12 February 1827, same date recorded by great-aunt Viola. I don’t know how she learned of his birthdate. She didn’t report a death date so she possibly did not have a copy of his death certificate. Other interesting items from Valentine’s death certificate:

  • Occupation: surgical instrument maker
  • Birthplace: Baden, Germany
  • How long in U.S.:  43 years [estimated immigration year 1855]
  • How long a resident in City of New York: 37 years [estimated year 1862]
  • Father’s name: Leonhan Maurer.  Father’s birthplace: Baden Germany
  • Mother’s name: Marie Maurer.  Mother’s birthplace: Baden Germany
  • Cause of death: Asthenia following pneumonia

Now, I turn to Valentine’s wife, Anna Katharina.  Her name is listed as Catherine Korselious[14]  and Katherine Korzilous[15] on the death certificates for two of her children. Viola’s spelling of her surname as Korzelins is similar.  Census records suggest that she was born in 1827 or 1828 rather than 1824 as reported by Viola.  The actual date of 4 November is perhaps true. When did she immigrate to the United States?  Did she and Valentine “meet on the boat” per oral family history?  Anna Maurer died on 12 February 1899 in Brooklyn, New York. [16]  Probate records, both filed on 12 March 1899,  name their children and current residences- “Herman Maurer. . . Katie (wife of Stephen) Scheffel, Joseph Maurer and Edward Maurer of the Borough of Brooklyn, County of Kings, New York and Rosina (wife of Jacob) Schnitz of Jersey City, New Jersey.”

Biographical Timeline –Valentine Maurer (1827, Baden, Germany – 1898, Brooklyn, New York, USA)

  • Birth– 12 Feb 1827 in Baden, Germany to Leonhard Maurer and Marie Metzger.
  • About 1855- Immigration to United States
  • About 1856 – Marriage to Anna Katharina Korselious
  • 1858- Birth of son, Valentine, New Jersey
  • 1859- Birth of son, Herman, New Jersey
  • 1860 – Living in Galloway, Atlantic county, New Jersey
  • About 1862/1863- move to Brooklyn, Kings County, New York
  • 1870 – Possibly living in Brooklyn (not confirmed)
  • 1880 –Living in Brooklyn
  • 1883- Marriage of son, Herman, to Anna Klee, daughter of Louis Klee and Anna Wolf
  • March 1888 – Death of oldest son, Valentine
  • June 1888 – September 1888–Travel to and return from Germany
  • 1889 – Marriage of daughter, Katie, to Stephen Scheffel
  • 1892 – Living in Brooklyn
  • 1895- Marriage of daughter, Rosie/ Rosina, to William Jacob Smetts
  • 1897- Marriage of son, Edward, to Margaret “Maggie” Roper
  • 21 Sep 1898—Death of Valentine Maurer
  • 12 Feb 1899 – death of wife, Anna Katharina Korzelins Maurer
  • 1905 – Marriage of son, Joseph, to Emma Beck

reflection-swirl-green-color-hi

REFLECTION

Writing this post helped me with a timeline perspective.  Clarified some items.  How did Viola know about Valentine Maurer’s birthdate? Is there a missing family Bible? When did Anna immigrate? I continue to be thrilled that great-aunt Viola was such a good historian. Even though her manuscript lacked sources, I have found many documents that support her information.  I share my information with cousins through this blog and other written materials. As always, there are still questions. I partially met the reasonably exhaustive criterion of the Genealogical Proof Standard. 

What helped:  Having copies of death certificates for Valentine, Valentine II,  Herman, Katie and Joseph. Probate records for Valentin and Anna Katharina, both filed on the same day.  Recent careful review of research.

What didn’t help: Not having 1870 or 1875 census for family. I looked again on two databases. A page by page review of the Brooklyn census seems to be the next step. 

Future plans:  Search Civil War Records again for Valentine Maurer.  Continue search for family in 1870 and 1875 census records. Locate naturalization records for Valentine and Anna Katharina. Order Anna Katharina Maurer’s death certificate-done 6 Feb 2019. 

©Susan Posten Ellerbee and Posting Family Roots 2019

SOURCES:

[1] Viola Blanche Maurer Tucker, “Maurer-Tucker Family History,” 2 sections; MS, 1800s to 1980s, Huntington, Suffolk County, New York; privately held by great-niece, Susan Mercedes Posten Ellerbee, [address for private use], Yukon, Oklahoma, 2017.  Carbon copy of original document created ca. 1975-1980 and sent to Viola’s niece, Eunice Bertha Tucker Posten, Ms. Ellerbee’s mother.

[2] “Deutschland Gerburten und Taufen, 1558-1898,” database, Family Search (https: //familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1: J8H   :  accessed 11 February 2019), Valentin Maurer, 09 February 1827; citing FHL microfilm 936,825. NOTE: I found this record as I was re-checking sources for this post.

[3]   1860 U.S. Federal Census, Atlantic county, New Jersey, population schedule, Galloway, p. 291 (penned), dwelling 2238, family 2205, Herman Maurer age 7/12; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, downloaded, printed 14 November 2017); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C., microfilm publication M653_682.

[4]   “Civil War Draft Registration Records, 1863-1865,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed & downloaded 24 November 2018), entry for Valentin Maurer, age 34; citing Records of the Provost Marshal General’s Bureau (Civil War), Record Group 110. National Archives at Washington, D.C.; original source: Consolidated Lists of Civil War Draft Registration Records (Provost Marshal General’s Bureau; Consolidated Enrollment Lists, 1863-1865); Record Group: 110. NAI: 4213514; Archive volume number: 3 of 5.

[5]   1880 U.S. Census, Kings county, New York, population schedule, Brooklyn, enumeration district (ED) 182, p. 42B (ink pen), sheet 325B (stamp), dwelling 161, family 465, Mauiner [Maurer] Valentine, age 52; digital images, Family Search (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:6HS : accessed, printed, downloaded 13 August 2018); citing National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication T9, roll 0852.

[6]  Brooklyn, New York, Department of Health of the City of Brooklyn, certificate of death no. 4076 (21 March 1888), Valentin Maurer; New York City Municipal Archives, New York City, New York.

[7]   Brooklyn, New York, Department of Health of the City of New York, certificate of death no. 10424 (1927, Hermann Maurer, New York City Municipal Archives, New York City, New York.

[8] Anna (Klee) Maurer .  “Autographs Album”  ( book,  Brooklyn, New York, ca 1883); privately held  by Susan M. Posten Ellerbee, [address for private use,], Yukon, Oklahoma, 2017.  Ms. Ellerbee is Anna’s great-granddaughter. The book was found in the personal effects of Ms. Ellerbee’s mother, Eunice Bertha (Tucker) Posten and was probably given to her by her mother, Charlotte A. (Maurer) Tucker, daughter of Herman and Anna.  Unnumbered page, written in German,  “An Anna, dated Oktober 19, 83, [signed] Anna Katharina Maurer.”

[9] “U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925,” database, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 24 November 2018), entry for Valentin Maurer 07 June 1888;  citing “Passport Application, 1795 – 1905, National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. : microfilm publication M1372, General Records Department of State, Record Group 59. 

[10] “New York, Passenger and Crew Lists (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820-1957,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 24 November 2018), entry for Valentin Maurer, birth date abt 1827; citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication M237_524; Line 38; List number 1200.

[11] New York State Department of Health, “New York, State Census, 1892,” database, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, downloaded 31 January 2018), entry for Valentine Maurer, age 55; citing New York State Education Department, Office of Cultural Education, Albany, New York; 173 Hopkins Street.

[12] Brooklyn, New York. Department of Health of the City of New York. Certificate of death no. 16339 (1898), New York City Municipal Archives, New York City, New York.

[13]  “New York, Wills and Probate Records, 1659-1999,” digital records, Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.com   : accessed and printed, 9 December 2015); probate case file for Valentine Maurer, filed 21 March 1899; citing  New York. Surrogate’s Court (King’s County), Probate case files, Kings County, New York. Filed by son, Herman Maurer; names children. 

[14] New York, Bureau of Records, Department of Health, Borough of Brooklyn, Certificate of Death no. 23456 (4 December 1941), Katherine A. Scheffel; Municipal Archives, New York City, New York.

[15] New York, Bureau of Records, Department of Health, Borough of Brooklyn,  Certificate of Death no. 24968 (14 December 1929),  Joseph Maurer; Municipal Archives, York City, New York.

[16]     New York, Wills and Probate Records, 1659-1999,” digital records, Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.com   : accessed and printed 20 May 2016); probate case file for Anna Katharina  Maurer, filed 21 March 1899; citing  New York. Surrogate’s Court (King’s County), Probate case files, Kings County, New York. Filed by son, Herman Maurer; names children. 

New Madrid earthquakes and Holcombe ancestors

What do you know about the New Madrid (pronounced MAD-rid) earthquakes of 1811-1812? If you are like me, you  don’t know much, if anything.  Geologists and seismologists (persons who study seismic activity, a.k.a. earthquakes) can maybe tell you about it.  I learned about the earthquakes while researching my mother-in-law’s Holcomb ancestors. Several Holcomb families are reported to have  lived in or near New Madrid, Missouri, when the earthquakes struck.  As a genealogist, can I prove the connection?  First, I relate the family history  and  historical documents then information about the earthquakes. Finally, I make my own conclusion.

New Madrid earthquake pic

The ancestral Holcomb/ Holcombe line traces back to Pendleton County, South Carolina.  The 1790 census shows Joel Holcomb with one male over 16 years and 4 females. [1]   Joel Holcombe I received a land grant in Warren county, Kentucky  in 1792. The state of Virginia generally reserved land grants in this area for Revolutionary War soldiers. [2]  Joel Holcombe I is my mother-in-law’s fifth great-grandfather.

An extensive Holcombe family history was published in 1947.[3] The narrative records one or more men named Joel Holcombe in each generation.  Sources include historical documents and oral family history. The editor also refers to written communications from numerous family members.

Pages 492-493:  “[Joel Holcombe I] moved about 1797 with brother, Harman Holcombe, to Warren Co., Ky [Kentucky]. . . . moved from Warren Co., Ky. about 1804 with his brother, Harman Holcombe to New Madrid, New Madrid Co., Mo., they being reported as the first settlers there to take up land W. of the Mississippi River in the then new Louisiana Purchase. . . . moved to St. Clair Co., Ill. where his brother, Zachariah Holcombe, arrived in 1807. Joel had returned to New Madrid, Mo., by 1809 when he d.[ied] there.”

Page 493:  “Joel Holcombe II. . .  moved from Pendleton to Warren Co., Ky. about 1797 . . .and on or before 1812 had left Warren and was settled in New Madrid Co., Mo. where they were Dec. 16, 1811 when the first of a long series of earthquake shocks there, and throughout a large adjoining region. . . . “

If this account is true, then Joel Holcombe I died in or near New Madrid in 1809. Other Holcombe relatives survived the earthquake.   “The Holcombes  fled this disaster with others, generally mounted, carrying but little of their property to higher ground to the north and west, in Mo., where Joel Holcombe remained only a year or two before removing to St. Clair Co., Ill. , where he entered land in 1814. . . . “ [4]

Census records for 1820 show Joel Holcomb in St. Clair County, Illinois.[5]  The family consists of 2 free white males of 16 and under 26 and 1 free white female of 26 and under 45.  Birth years for the males are estimated as between 1794 and 1804 suggesting that this is the younger Joel Holcomb.  So far, information looks consistent.

However, there is at least one issue. Joel Holcombe II’s birth year is reported as about 1797. If true, then he would have been 13 or 14 years old at the time of the New Madrid earthquakes. At present, I am not attempting to validate the above information as reported in the Holcombe history. That is another project!

missouri map

New Madrid is in the boot heel region of Missouri.  During the early 1800s, the Mississippi River system  was the primary trade route connecting eastern cities with New Orleans.  New Madrid was the largest settlement between St. Louis and Natchez, Mississippi.  This thriving, busy community had no way to predict the coming earthquake. Survivors reported rainy, unusually warm weather in the days just before the first quake.

The first earthquake shook the people of New Madrid, Missouri out of their beds at 2 a.m. on December 16, 1811. Numerous quakes continued to occur through March 1812. [6]  At least two of the subsequent quakes were felt as far away as Washington, D.C.  Eyewitness accounts describe the general destruction including coffins being tossed out of the ground at the local cemetery.[7]  At one point, the Mississippi River actually ran backwards and carried a flatboat about 4 miles upstream.

Located near Dunklin County, Missouri is Holcomb Island.  Dunklin county was formed in 1845 from Stoddard County which had been formed from  New Madrid County in 1845. [8]  Was this island named after our Holcomb ancestors? From a message board:  “Could Joel have been unlucky enough to have his 100 acres sink to the bottom of the Mississippi?”[9] The same person reported that Joel Holcomb bought land in New Madrid County from an Edward Robertson in October 1811. I have not seen the original land transfer record and have not located it online.

Question:  Were Holcomb ancestors present in or near New Madrid, Missouri at the time of 1811-1812 earthquakes?   Answer:  Likely.  The land transfer record would prove that Joel Holcomb I purchased land in New Madrid about two months before the first earthquake. Land purchase suggests residence  at the appropriate time.  What other Holcomb families lived in the area?  Joel Holcombe II may not have been old enough to have his own family.  The assertion still needs to be proved.  I see a genealogy field trip to Missouri in my future!

For additional information:

Fuller, Myron L. The New Madrid Earthquake. USGS Bulletin 494. Washington Gov’t Printing Office, 1912. [Cape Girardeau, MO: Center for Earthquake Studies, 1989].  121 pages with extensive references including some firsthand accounts.  Available online:  https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/0494/report.pdf

reflection-swirl-green-color-hi

Reflection:

I have been intrigued by this story since I first read about it in 2015 as I delved deeper into my mother-in-law’s family.  The New Madrid earthquake was a significant event in our nation’s early history.  We lived in Arkansas for 9 years and heard about the New Madrid fault which runs through northwestern Arkansas.  A similar earthquake now would potentially cause thousands of deaths.  I have only scratched the surface on this topic.  Still makes for an interesting family story.

In this post, I continue to write about possible family connections to specific events. These connections make both the people and the events more real.  I realize that I need to validate information reported in the Holcombe book.  The challenge will be to separate the lives of multiple men named Joel Holcombe in various generations.  Genealogy Do-over focus for 2019?

What I learned:  Personal stories about those who experienced  the New Madrid earthquake. The impact was more far-reaching than I expected.  The Indian leader Tecumseh is part of this history. The Holcombe family story has been handed down for generations.

What helped:  Previous access to some documents.  Book about the earthquake in my local library.   1820 & 1830 census records for Joel Holcombe (probably  Joel  II) in St. Clair, Illinois. Met word count goal of less than 1500 words for this post.

What didn’t help:  Not having access to documents mentioned by others.  No online database found with 1810 census or tax records for Missouri. I am becoming too dependent on technology!

To-do:  Field trip to New Madrid and/or Missouri State Archives. Continue search for documents about Holcomb family during this time period.  Search 1810 census records in Warren County, Kentucky for Joel Holcomb.

SOURCES

[1] 1790 U.S. Census, Pendleton district, South Carolina, population schedule, , page 5, column 2, line 12, Joel Halcomb; digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed, printed, downloaded 21 September 2018); citing National Archives & Records Administration, Washington, D.C. microfilm publication M637,Roll 11.

[2] Hannah Elizabeth Weir McPherson, The Holcombes.Nation Builders (Washington, D.C.: The author , 1947), 492.

[3] McPherson, The Holcombes, Joel Holcombe I (p. 477, 492-493); Joel Holcombe II (p. 493); Joseph Holcombe (p. 493, 499-500).

[4] McPherson, The Holcombes, 493.

[5] 1820 U.S. Census, St. Clair county, Illinois, population schedule, page 131, line 33, Joel Halcomb; digital images, Family Search (https://www.familysearch.org   : accessed & printed 2 December 2018); citing National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., microfilm publication M19, roll 25.

[6] Jay Feldman, When the Mississippi ran backwards: Empire, intrigue, murder, and the New Madrid earthquakes.  New York, NY: Free Press, 2005.

[7] Arch C. Johnston & Eugene S. Schweig, “The Enigma of the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-1812,” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 24 (1996), 339-384; image copy, Semantic Scholar, (https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1302  :  accessed & downloaded, 2 December 2018).

[8] Family Search Wiki (https://www.familysearch.org/   : accessed 3 December 2018),  “Missouri County Creation Dates and Parent Counties.”

[9] Donna Lonan, “Wingfield Notes: The Holcombs,” My Arkansas Families, discussion board, November 1981 and January 1982, posting date unknown  (http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~arkfam/holcomb.html  : accessed 2 December 2018).

The story of stollen

What food traditions are honored by your family during this holiday season?  For my husband and his family, Nana’s cornbread stuffing is the ‘must-have’ dish with Thanksgiving turkey.  My family ate traditional fare of turkey with white bread dressing for Thanksgiving.  My mother’s allergy to turkey meant that she also baked a chicken or duck for her meal.  One of my fondest memories about visiting mom’s parents is stollen, a sweet yeast bread with German origins.  In this post, I digress from the telling of individual stories to share our family recipe and a few stories.

stollen

What’s left of the most recent stollen at our house

As mentioned, stollen is a sweet yeast bread with German origins.  It is made with dried fruits, nuts and spices. How to pronounce “stollen”

Here’s the RECIPE:   CHRISTMAS STOLLEN_one page

My maternal great-great grandparents immigrated to the U.S. from Germany. Valentine Maurer and Maria Metzger were from Baden in southwest Germany. Ludwig Klee claimed Prussia in north east Germany as his homeland.  The ancestry of Anna Wolfe, Ludwig’s wife, is either Dutch or Prussian.  So, we honor those German traditions and food.

I remember that Gram always had stollen when we visited. Sometimes she bought the stollen from a commercial bakery,  Entenmann’s.  Entenmann’s  baked goods are available at many retail grocery chains. If you have never tried any of their cakes and desserts, you are really missing something wonderful! Sometimes the stollen came from the local bakery where great-aunt Viola worked.

My sister found the original recipe years ago. Both of us tweaked the recipe a little to produce this version. I make this stollen the week before Thanksgiving. We eat it Thanksgiving morning while watching parades on TV.  For the next several weeks, snack time often includes a small piece of stollen.  I often make a second recipe in December.

HINTS

Use real butter, not margarine.  I use unsalted butter.  I cannot say how it would turn out if you use soft butter from tubs or salted butter.

Nuts:  I use pecans. Almonds or walnuts give a slightly different flavor.

Raisins:  We like golden raisins but regular black raisins work well, too. I haven’t tried the recipe with cranraisins.

I don’t have a counter-top mixer. I do all of the mixing and kneading by hand.  Quality should be the same if you use a counter-top mixer for kneading the bread dough.  Continue to mix in fruits and nuts by hand.

One recipe makes two stollen cakes. Wrap one in plastic wrap and aluminum; place in the freezer. Keeps in freezer for months.

Warm a piece in microwave for 10-15 seconds then put some butter on it. The butter just melts into the bread.

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REFLECTION:

I put the recipe at the beginning of my post.  Why?  Personal preference. I am annoyed by  food posts that show multiple pictures of a dish with lots of text before you ever get to the recipe.  I don’t mind reading a short introduction.  Then, I want to read the recipe!  If I am interested, then I will read the rest of the post.  I guess it’s a marketing ploy similar to a salesperson telling you all about a product without telling you the price.

What I learned:  different ways to pronounce ‘stollen’.

What helped:  years of experience making this sweet yeast bread for my family.

What didn’t help:  nothing.

TO-DO:   I made one batch last week for my family. Make another batch after Thanksgiving for in-laws.  Happy Thanksgiving!